What is dextrose? Composition and use
Dextrose is a monosaccharide that is a programing optical isomer of a common glucose molecule. It is in this type of glucose found in the cells of the body, as well as in the composition of the cells of berries and fruits. In medicine, dextrose is referred to as d – glucose, which is actively involved in all metabolic processes of the human body, but the most important of them is to ensure the antitoxic function of the liver, as well as the body’s redox reactions.
In the form of monosaccharides in nature, there are only d-glucose and d-fructose, which are carbohydrates. All other carbohydrates known to science can exist only in the form of disaccharides and polysaccharides.
Learn more about what dextrose, learn from this article.
Action of substance
Cells of the inner surface of the human intestine are capable of absorbing exclusively those carbohydrates that are monosaccharides, namely dextrose.In this regard, the process of food digestion is that the bonds between the molecules of simple sugars are destroyed. Simple sugars are found in carbohydrates, which have a polysaccharide and oligosaccharide structure. Everywhere there is dextrose in the composition.
For example, the well-known refined sugar consists of molecules of fructose and dextrose, which in this case is a kind of chemical compound. Once in the intestine, sugar breaks down into two separate molecules, fructose and dextrose, which, after such a breakdown, enter the blood.
Dextrose can be called "super-fast" carbohydrate, because its absorption occurs right in the mouth and is immediately absorbed into the blood. This substance does not require digestion and splitting, because it is a monosaccharide, that is, it consists of one molecule.
Dextrose is the only carbohydrate used by the cells of the human body in order to receive energy, and it is transferred along with the flow of blood to every cell in it, to every organ, including the brain. In this way, the human body receives the necessary energy for its existence and functioning.This energy in large quantities is spent on brain activity, muscle contraction, the work of the heart, the digestive system, the respiratory system, as well as tissue regeneration.
For the normal implementation of its functions, the brain needs about 120 grams of this substance daily.
What is dextrose is interesting to many.
Preparations and release forms
In pharmacology, there is a huge variety of drugs that make up a group of carbohydrate food drugs. They are used, as a rule, in order to rehydrate and detoxify the body.
Release form of dextrose:
- in the form of an isotonic solution for infusions;
- in the form of a hypertonic solution for infusions (10%).
The active ingredient is dextrose. The drug is available in bottles or glass bottles of 100 ml.
What is dextrose, we explained.
Indications for use
This is a natural substance that is able to provide substrate energy cost replenishment. The drug is used by introducing a patient into a vein and contributes to the enhancement of fluid flow from muscle tissue into the blood stream, increases the osmotic pressure of the blood,activates the body's metabolic processes, significantly increases the antitoxic effect of the liver, the contractile ability of the heart muscles, increases diuresis and dilates the blood vessels. The use of dextrose is widespread.
Considering the pharmacological effect of this substance, it is advisable to use it in such pathologies as:
- hemorrhagic diathesis;
- various kinds of intoxication;
- liver disease;
- shock conditions.
This is confirmed by the dextrose instructions.
Contraindications to the use of drugs are the following diseases and pathological conditions:
- Hypersensitivity to dextrose;
- poisoning with a liquid, which is accompanied by such consequences as swelling of the brain, heart or kidney failure, pulmonary edema, hyperosmolar coma;
- violations of glucose utilization (frequent after surgical interventions);
It is used with caution in the treatment of patients with chronic renal failure, as well as in the event of conditions that are accompanied by hyponatremia.
Side Effects of Dextrose and Overdose
In most cases, the drug is well tolerated, but there are cases when dextrose infusions cause an imbalance in the water-salt balance in the body, the development of fever, hypervolemia, hyperglycemia, hypomagnesemia and other disorders, acute ventricular failure. The first symptoms of a dextrose overdose are:
- violation of water and electrolyte balance.
In the event of the appearance of these or other undesirable reactions of the body to the introduction of dextrose, the patient should immediately stop the infusion, then enter the required dose of insulin. Further treatment of the side effects of dextrose or its overdose should be symptomatic.
How to use?
Intravenous jet application - 10% solution in a volume of 10-50 ml.
Parenteral intake for adults who have a normal metabolism: you can not exceed the permissible daily dose of 4-6 g per kg, on average, 200-400 g per day. If the metabolism is slow, the dose is reduced. The rate of administration is recommended for an adult with a normal metabolism - 0.25-0.5 g per kg per hour, with a reduced metabolism - no more than 0.125-0.25 g per kg per hour.
As a parenteral nutrition for children on the first day it is supposed to use in a dose of 6 g per kg, in the subsequent - up to 15 g per kg of weight.
Special instructions for use of dextrose
In order to improve the body's absorption of this substance, in cases of its use in higher doses, experts recommend prescribing a therapeutic dose of insulin to the patient.
While using sodium chloride dextrose, its pharmacological compatibility with other drugs should be considered. Patients suffering from various forms of diabetes, dextrose should be administered, exercising control over its content in the patient's blood and urine.
The use of dextrose during pregnancy and breastfeeding is not contraindicated. It does not affect the speed of psychomotor reactions, and also does not exclude the possibility of the patient to drive a vehicle or to carry out activities associated with high concentration of attention.
What is dextrose is now clear.