Universal Declaration of Human Rights: the history of creation and a brief description
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Government, public organizations and journalists are very fond of using the current fashionable phrase. This is "human rights." Many people treat him with anxiety, and some consider him to be a “Western invention, designed to destroy Russian values.” But in reality, the life and dignity of people throughout the history became both an object of respect and violence. This can be seen both in chronicles and in religious texts. Now the thirty provisions that form the basis of what we call “human rights” are compiled in one document. It is the most important in this regard, although it is not formally legally binding. It is called the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
What documents existed before it appeared
However, long before it appeared, long before spiritual and religious ideals were expressed in the language of legal documents, people began to struggle to live in a safe and free society from arbitrariness. The British Magna Chart, or “Magna Charta,” already in 1215, became one of the first European laws that recognized the principle of the rule of law. Interstate treaties that have appeared since the Reformation, made it possible to fix the impossibility of one country to deal with religious minorities so that it "shocked the conscience of mankind." Thus, a precedent was created for the protection of religious freedom. It is now contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The provision that the law should treat people as equals, despite their position and origin, and cruel treatment of them should be prohibited, as well as arbitrary arrest, was included in the "Hubeas Corpus Act", which became the basis of the American Constitution.Collaboration between the French and English-speaking philosophers led to the creation of other Declarations, where many other progressive positions were enshrined.Equality between people there is proclaimed as a “self-evident principle,” and the presumption of innocence and freedom of speech and thought have become internationally recognized.
1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights
A special commission of the new world community - the United Nations - was convened in 1945. She began to develop a special document. His vocation was to create such standards that would provide every person - a resident or citizen of a country that joined the UN - the opportunity to live in dignity, freely, and to realize their capabilities in practice. A man or a woman, a member of a minority or majority, a large nation or a small ethnic group — everyone should have enjoyed liberties alike. The list of necessary conditions for this is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
The list was developed by lawyers of various legal concepts - not only European and American, but Islamic, African and even Soviet. Therefore, it should not be said that this document expresses exclusively Western values. It is universal. It includes the values expressed in the Bible, the Vedas and the Koran, only in secular manners. In 1948, the vast majority of world nations voted for him.This is how the Universal Declaration of Human Rights came into being. The general characteristics of this document can be expressed in just a few words. It contains a list (not exhaustive, but mandatory) of rights that should be guaranteed to any earthling - no matter what race, nationality or status he belongs to. In addition, and this is probably the most important thing, these standards can be protected not only by their own governments, but also by all countries of the world. Borders are no obstacle in this area. Every state has the duty to protect human rights and promote this Declaration.