Trans-Baikal National Park: relief, rivers, flora and fauna
The Russian Federation is rich in picturesque places, each of which touches to the depths of the soul with delightful landscapes, wondrous panoramas and unforgettable views. All these places are inhabited by unusual representatives of the flora and fauna, with a bizarre appearance, a peculiar way of life and exotic habits.
One of these pristine corners of nature is the National Park in Buryatia, enchanting even the most sophisticated tourists and forcing those who are indifferent to natural beauty to admire themselves.
What is this park? What is it remarkable? Is it as beautiful as they say? All our article is devoted to these questions. But first, let's find out what a “national park” is and how it differs from a nature reserve.
Environmental protection zone
A national park is a defined territory in which, according to a project for nature conservation, human activity is partially limited.
Unlike the reserve - a specially protected area, where the entrance is limited to the minimum number of people and any impact on natural resources is strictly prohibited - the national park allows visitors to own their possessions. Within these lands, it is even allowed to conduct some economic activity.
Where exactly is the Trans-Baikal Natural National Park, and how to get to it?
Location and Routes
The place of interest is in the Republic of Buryatia, not far from such a large urban massif as Ulan-Ude and relatively close to the small village of Severobaikalsk. Ust-Barguzin is the closest place to the Zabaykalsky Pearl, from which you can easily get to the park using the services of local taxi drivers.
There are several routes to Ust-Barguzin:
- By bus or by minibus from Ulan-Ude (the bus station is located at: Korabelnaya Street, 32).
- Personal transport (on the highway Ulan-Ude - Ust-Barguzin, north direction).
- By water (in the summer, from the river station of the city of Irkutsk weekly departure of the ship-rocket is carried out).
So, the route to the Trans-Baikal National Park is determined. What is remarkable about this place? And what's interesting there you can see?
The Zabaikalsky National Park, established in September 1986, is located on two hundred sixty-nine thousand hectares, its arrangement fully complies with the recommendations of UNESCO.
The climate of the territory is continental, characterized by long and frosty winters and arid warm summers. The rather harsh climatic features of the area are mitigated by the water depths of Lake Baikal.
The average summer temperature ranges between twelve or fourteen degrees above zero, and the average winter temperature ranges from twenty-three to twenty-five with a minus mark.
The average rainfall is moderate, ranging from three hundred and fifty millimeters along the coast to four hundred and fifty millimeters on the tops of the mountains.
The water in the lake is cold, rarely reaching fifteen degrees above zero.
Frequent winds prevail in this area, mostly from the west or south-west.
The relief of the Trans-Baikal National Park is heterogeneous, mostly mountainous. On the territory there are several ridges and isthmuses, a small number of peninsulas and even one group of islands.
Some of the highest peaks of the park reach two thousand three hundred seventy-six meters above sea level.
And now let's virtually visit the most outstanding and most picturesque orographic units of the park.
The Barguzinsky Range, located on the northeastern side of Baikal, is formed by rocky rocks and is characterized by pointed peaks and steep, inaccessible slopes.
In some places of the ridge glaciers were discovered that originated thousands of years ago, as well as springs with mineral water. Beautiful relief gorges stretch along the ridge.
The Chivyrkuyu Isthmus is a lowland wetland, about twenty kilometers long and of variable width (from eight to eighteen kilometers). The Kuli marshes and the shallow lake Arangatuy are located on this territory.
The Ushkany Islands, which occupy an area of almost ten square kilometers, are an archipelago with deserted rocky shores and the only inhabited village (a cordon of several inhabitants).These islands are considered the top of the underwater Academic Ridge. To visit them, you need to get special permission to disembark.
And finally, the Holy Nose peninsula is the largest peninsula of Baikal (with a total area of almost six hundred square kilometers), connecting the Chivyrkuis isthmus with the mainland of Buryatia and has long been famous for its ritual rituals of shamans. On the territory of the peninsula is a hot spring.
The rivers of the Zabaikalsky National Park have isolated pools and flow into Lake Baikal. The largest of them are Bolshaya Cheremshan (nine kilometers long), Small Cheremshan (twenty-four kilometers long) and Big Chivyrkui (thirty nine kilometers long).
Of course, on the territory of the Trans-Baikal National Park, other, smaller and shallower rivers flow. For example, the river Burtui, the length of which barely reaches sixteen kilometers, which in no way reflects on the beauty of its landscapes and their picturesqueness.
In its upper course, Burtui has a mountainous character; there it runs through a pronounced meandering stream.The width of the river varies from two to three meters on the Chivyrkuisky isthmus and up to sixty meters in the delta of Lake Small Arangatui.
On the coastline of Bourtuy there is an exotic Buryat sanctuary associated with the ancient traditions of the shamans.
Lakes and bays
The Zabaykalsky National Park is rich in various water bodies, among other picturesque channels are two large freshwater lakes - Arangatui and Maly Arangatui (the total area of which is fifty-two square kilometers). The average depth of water bodies is eleven meters, and the length of their coastline is forty kilometers.
The park also includes part of the Barguzinsky Bay water area, consisting of ten thousand hectares. This is the largest and deepest bay of Lake Baikal.
However, besides the landscape beauties, the Zabaykalsky National Park is famous for its rich and colorful flora and fauna.
The flora of the Zabaikalsky National Park is a forest of southern Siberian taiga, most of which are coniferous plantations.
Here are found:
- pine tree. A tree, about fifty meters in height and with a trunk diameter of up to one meter;
- elfin cedar. Low coniferous tree plant;
- Siberian cedar. Evergreen tree, reaching forty-five meters in height and two meters in diameter of the trunk, the life expectancy of which may be five hundred or six hundred years;
- Gmelin larch. This is a tree of the Pine family, whose height can be twenty-five meters, and its diameter is eighty centimeters.
Among the deciduous stands, stone birch and aspen occupy a special place.
On the protected territory of Transbaikalia one can often find rare and endangered plant species listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation. First of all, it is choseny of a bearberry (a deciduous tree of the Willow family, reaching twenty meters in height) and Tillinga Borodiniia (a dicotyledonous plant of the Cabbage family).
The fauna of the Trans-Baikal National Park is striking in its diversity and colorful. There are about fifty species of mammals, two hundred and fifty species of birds, three species of reptiles and three species of amphibians.
Among them it is worth paying attention to:
- Muskrat or musk rat. The weight of an adult individual of this animal reaches one and a half kilograms, and the body length is about thirty centimeters. The animal settles on the shores of freshwater bodies and leads an active nocturnal lifestyle. It feeds on young shoots, rhizomes, agricultural crops, mollusks, frogs and fish.
- Sable. The length of his body is about half a meter, and the tail - twenty centimeters. This is a very agile and strong predator that lives on the banks of rivers, in thickets and stone placers. Good jumping and climbing trees. It feeds on mouse-like rodents, squirrels and even hares, prefers grouses and hazel grouses from birds, from plant food - pine nuts, rowan fruits, blueberries, currants.
- Ermine Valuable fur animal, weighing from seventy to two hundred and fifty grams and a body length of about thirty centimeters (with a tail). It settles not far from water, in thickets of reeds, swims well and climbs. Very brave and bloodthirsty. Hunting for large rodents and fish.
- The Baikal seal (or seal). In length, this mammal reaches one and a half meters, and its weight exceeds one hundred kilograms.It lives in the waters of Lake Baikal, can dive to a depth of two hundred meters. At Ushkany Islands, at sunset, real rookeries of seals feeding on non-commercial fish are formed.
- Red deer, whose body length is about two meters and weighs more than three hundred kilograms. They feed on deer cereals, legumes, needles, chestnuts, nuts, mushrooms, and even lichens. They are distinguished by their massive, sprawling horns in several processes, which are used in medicinal purposes in a non-stiffened form.
- The Siberian grayling is a freshwater fish of unusual color, the weight of which can reach five to six kilograms.
- An ide is a radiant fish weighing up to two and a half kilograms, with a very unusual color (dark blue on the back and silver on the belly).
Expediency of the excursion
As you can see, Zabaykalsky National Park is a real paradise, with its bright picturesque landscapes and rare, beautiful representatives of flora and fauna.
No matter what time of year you visit this pearl of Transbaikalia, you will always find it interesting and informative to walk along its winding paths, explore its mountain peaks and gorges, watch magnificent and original animals, admire virgin and mighty forests.