The population of Japan. Crisis and ways out of it
Economic reorientation, complicatedfinancial crisis, very much influenced the situation in the society. The big problem for health and social insurance is the aging of the Japanese.
Over the past century, the population of Japan has quadrupled. The peak of the birth rate occurred for years after the Second World War and lasted almost to the 50-ies.Then the gradual decrease in indicators began. Thanks to advances in the development of medicine and in health care, it was possible to reduce the percentage of child mortality and significantly increase life expectancy, which contributed to the rate of growth to remain high for some time.
However, today the situation looksotherwise. According to some estimates, the population of Japan during the next 100 years will decrease from 127.7 million to 42.9 million, and the birth rate will be 1.35 after 50 years.
Young people are not in a hurry to create a familyfinancial considerations. Women, first of all, do not want to change their habitual life style and are trying to build a career first, and the birth of the child is postponed until better times.
The population of Japan has a record life expectancy. On average, by 2011it was 80 for men and 86 for womenyears, thereby increasing pension expenditures over the past decade in the state budget by 15%. If there were 12 able-bodied citizens for another pensioner half a century ago, today their proportion has approached 1: 3.
Ways to overcome the crisis situation
Based on the real indicators, we see,that the problem becomes not only social but also economic. According to some reports, only after 30 years, Japan, whose population is rapidly aging, of the total number of residents will have 40% of retirees.
Taxes.To improve the social security of the country andtax system in general, the Japanese parliament of the lower house decided to increase the sales tax to 5% to 8% in 2014. and by the end of 2015 to gradually bring it to 15% - the populationJapan and the opposition reacted negatively to the innovation.
Migration program.This program, in the opinion of the Japanese authorities,will help to stop the decline in the size of the country and make Japan a country of multiculturalism. Since 2014, the government has facilitated the visa regime for the entry of foreigners and is ready to receive up to 220,000 people annually. The flow of migrants from the CIS countries, India, China, Latin America, and Africa is expected. For them it is supposed to build language schools and various social assistance. The program is designed for the period until 2089.
The population of Japan, in which environment occursthe aging of economically active citizens, the problem not only of this country, and in comparison with the European states is developing not so rapidly. At the moment, most of the tax payers are Japanese from 55 to 65 years - this is the result of the adoption of the pension reform by the Japanese Parliament in 1983, which eased the burden on the tax system and the social sphere, which made the crisis situation in the economy not so obvious.