The Palace of Soviets - the utopian project of the USSR.
I have long wanted to write a post about the Palace of Soviets - the unrealized utopian project of a colossal administrative building, should have been built in Moscow and should have symbolized the victory of socialism in a single state. According to the plan of the Soviet architects, the Palace of Soviets was to become the tallest building in the world at that time - above the skyscrapers in New York.
For the construction of the Palace of Soviets, the Cathedral of Christ the Savior was destroyed - the Bolsheviks blew it up in 1931, and in 1932 began preparatory work for the construction of the Palace of Soviets. The colossus foundation was completed by 1939, but due to the start of World War II, the project was completely frozen.
So, in today's post - the story about the Palace of Soviets in Moscow - perhaps one of the most utopian architectural projects of the timesthe USSR. Come under the cat, it is interesting. Welladd friendsDo not forget)
First, a little history.The idea of building a colossal palace arose back in 1922 - Sergey Kirov voiced it at the First All-Union Congress of Soviets - it seemed to Sergei that "the sounds of the International no longer fit in the old buildings, and in place of the bankers, landowners and kings palaces" .
The fact that this would be no “palace of the peasants” at all, but the palace for meetings of the Soviet nomenklatura, to which the peasants would not be allowed into a cannon shot, was modestly ignored in a fiery speech. But Kirov did not hide the ex-psionalist plans of the Bolsheviks at the expense of Western countries - "the magnificent building will become the emblem of the coming power, the triumph of communism, not only here, but also there, in the West!"
02. These are the articles published in the Soviet press of those years. For comparison, it was drawn how exactly the Palace of Soviets will be higher than the famous skyscrapers, the pyramids of Egypt and the Eiffel Tower in Paris.
04. To select the final project, a competition was held, the requirements for the palace building were such - there should be two halls inside, Big and Small, each of the halls should accommodate several thousand people.Among the entries, the project of Dmitry Iofan was rejected (as a “restoration-eclectic” project) and the project of Herman Krasin (“the upper part resembles a church dome”). In total, about 160 projects were considered - they were considered in two stages, and as a result, the work of Boris Iofan won.
According to the plan of the designers, the Palace of Soviets was to be the tallest building in the world, the top of the building was to be crowned with a giant 100-meter statue of Lenin - thus, the Palace of Soviets was at the same time a building and a sort of colossal pedestal for the monument. The mass of a full-sized statue of Lenin was supposed to be 6000 tons, and the length of his index finger would be 4 meters.
05. By the way, it was also planned to completely rebuild the center of Moscow by erecting the Palace itself, destroying the old quarters - something similar did laterConductor Ceausescu in Bucharest. It was planned to lay a wide highway between Red Square and the then Sverdlov Square (now Teatralnaya). The authors of the project noted that “the idea embedded in the architectural design of the squares of the Palace of Soviets is the idea of open, widely inviting squares that personify socialist democracy.”I do not know that such a “democratic” in open spaces would most likely have turned out to be huge, overwhelming areas that do not correspond to the scale of a person, where a person feels like a bug.
This is how the Palace should look like in today's Moscow - if it was built.
06. About the interiors of the planned palace there is little information preserved - it is only known that they should have been finished with polished granite and decorated with sculptures. Places for spectators in the Great Hall were planned to be covered with leather, the height of the Great Hall was to be 100 meters with a diameter of 140 meters. The small hall was supposed to be 32 meters high, and the lobby of the Palace was to be called the "hall of the Stalinist constitution."
Estimated interior of the Great Hall:
07. Lobby, "Hall of the Stalinist constitution":
08. In 1939, they finished building the foundation - it was built so long because the alleged palace was supposed to have a huge weight - about 1.5 million tons. The head of the construction of the Palace named Vasily Mikhailov was repressed and executed by the end of the construction of the foundation. The reality knocked on the doors of the Soviet searchlights with the beginning of the Second World War - it was necessary to make anti-tank hedgehogs for the defense of Moscow from metal blanks for the foundation,and the rest of the metal was used to build bridges on the railway.
In the post-war years in the USSR, they didn’t leave the idea to finish the Palace of Soviets - however, the project was significantly stunned and seriously blown away - the height of the building should have been no longer 415, but 270 meters, the areas of interior halls and their decor were significantly reduced. In 1947, the famous "Stalin's skyscrapers" began to be built in Moscow, and the Palace of Soviets was finally forgotten.
Photo: Photo: russian7.ru | namednibook.ru | way2day.com | tehne.com
In my opinion, the Palace of Soviets was originally a utopian project, which shows that it happens when the government completely controls the finances of the country - instead of such a giant expensive structure, it was possible to completely modernize the infrastructure of several Soviet cities.
What do you think about this?
Write in the comments, interesting.