The largest warship in the Black Sea
I got to Novorossiysk for the first time in late August of this year. It seemed to me that it was a large enough city, but in fact Novorossiysk is a little more than my Old Oskol.
And also my great surprise was that the largest warship in the Black Sea moored there on the embankment. Do not believe?
Look here ...
Here is a video about the history of the cruiser and the excursion I attended:
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The cruiser "Mikhail Kutuzov" became the twelfth ship of the project 68-bis. It was laid in February 1951 at the Nikolaevsky Shipbuilding Plant and launched on August 9, 1954. After passing a series of tests, the ship was introduced into the Black Sea Fleet. The Mediterranean and the Black Sea, as well as the central Atlantic, where Mikhail Kutuzov served until his withdrawal from service in 1998, became his responsibility zone. At this point, the ship passed 211,900 miles.
"Mikhail Kutuzov", being a very beautiful and representative ship, made himself, besides the military, also a political career and became a meeting place at the highest level. His guests in different years were Indonesian President Sukarno, Egyptian head Abdel Nasser, King of Ethiopia Haile Selassie I, the shah of Iran and his wife, and other powerful people of this world.
Officially, "Mikhail Kutuzov" participated in two armed conflicts during the Arab-Israeli war, in 1967 and 1973. Both times he was in the port of Alexandria as a command post of the main military adviser to the USSR in Egypt. The cruiser did not take direct part in the hostilities, but the fact of his presence in Alexandria was the guarantor of the world.
In 1994, cruiser veterans took the initiative to preserve the only and last artillery cruiser in the Russian Navy as the center of military history, patriotic and excursion work. UNESCO has brought the cruiser to its catalog as of historical value.
On August 5, 2000, the exposition of the cruiser-museum “Mikhail Kutuzov” was opened.
I read such information that something has been gathering over the ship-museum lately.Whether clouds, or the light at the end of the tunnel.
The idea is that the cruiser is obliged to return to Sevastopol, from where he was taken away in 2001, when the lease of our base expired. There were serious concerns that the ship would go under cutting for metal. So, actually, "Kutuzov" and was in Novorossiysk. And already there became a museum.
A rather large initiative group that includes such famous people as VN Admirals. Chernavin, I.V. Kasatonov, Rear Admiral E.A. Kobtsev, Rear Admiral A.I. Aladkin, Admiral V.A. Kravchenko, Vice-Admiral V.D. Ryazantsev, Rear Admiral A.P. Grinkevich, Rear Admiral V. Uryvsky, Vice Admiral R.A. Votes, advocates for the return of the cruiser back to Sevastopol.
The motivation is simple: the cruiser is obliged to return to the hero city of Sevastopol in order to become part of the historical heritage. But for now, the cruiser is in Novorossiysk and let's continue about it.
In general, as I said, Novorossiysk is a very large city, but in fact it is not. And in Novorossiysk, the sorest southern port in Russia. but look like that - and it looks small. It seems so, because the bay is curved and the port is located along the length of the entire bay. When visiting the embankment, you overlook only the final part of the bay and you do not feel the enormity of the port.
So, what am I doing. As written in the name of the post - this cruiser is the largest warship in the Black Sea. How is it, you ask. Well, let's watch.
Here, for example, the Cruiser "Moscow" - the current flagship of the Black Sea fleet has a length of186 meters. But the main characteristics of the cruiser "Kutuzov", which is now a museum:
Anyway, the Peter the Great heavy nuclear missile cruiser, which is the world's largest non-invading strike ship (the flagship of the Northern Fleet), has a length of 251 meters. So, Mikhail Kuznetsov is indeed by right the largest warship in the Black Sea.
Let's go to the ship ...
I must say right away that it was evident that the ship was in a rather bad condition. I do not know what it is on the balance sheet, but museum workers complain that they are sorely lacking money. An excursion ticket costs 200 rubles and the flow there is very good there during the tourist season.
In the video you can see in more detail how bad the ship is already.
They show very little and tell about combat weapons. It would be interesting to visit the combat tower, or at least the command post of control of the ship.
Well, let's learn more about the ship itself.
The ship had two masts, two chimneys, four three-gun turrets of the main caliber. In the middle part of the cruiser two blocks of superstructures are mounted. On the nose superstructure were located: the conning tower, the bow KDP for controlling the fire of the GK artillery, two small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery batteries. Two feed batteries MZA and the second main gearbox of the main caliber were installed on the aft superstructure. Six paired 100-mm universal deck-tower artillery mounts are installed on the forecastle, three for each side.
The cruiser had an all-welded hull and a double bottom. For the manufacture of structures used low-alloy steel of high strength. To ensure floatability, the body was divided into the 22nd main transverse watertight bulkheads into 23 autonomous compartments.
In order to protect the vital parts of the ship, general and local reservations were provided: anti-missile, anti-splinter and anti-bullet. The designs used mainly homogeneous armor. The bulk of the armor fell on the citadel, consisting of a side belt and traverses, covered with a protective deck. The body armor weight is about 3000 tons.
According to calculations, it was envisaged that the reservation should provide in combat conditions the protection of the vital centers of the ship from the damaging effects of 152-mm and 203-mm armor-piercing shells.
The constructive underwater protection used by the enemy against the effects of the enemy’s torpedo and mine weapons was exhausted only by a double bottom. The system of on-board compartments and longitudinal bulkheads only limited the submerged volumes inside the hull, but could not localize the impact of the explosion of the torpedo warhead.
Power plant and driving performance
The main power plant of the cruiser consisted of 6 vertical steam boilers of the triangular type KV-68 and 2 turbine gear units TB-7 with the corresponding auxiliary mechanisms and valves.
In order to increase survivability, the engine and boiler rooms were located layered. To increase the resistance to impact loads and shocks, the turbine casing and auxiliary mechanisms were made of steel, with mandatory damping mechanisms.
Two four-bladed brass propellers were set in rotation by two turbo-gear units.The turbine of the nose engine compartment worked on the right shafting, the stern - on the left.
Here is the key I saw on the poube:
The heating and domestic needs of the personnel were provided by two auxiliary boilers of the type KVS-68-bis. Taking into account the increase in the number of electricity consumers, five turbogenerators with a capacity of 300 kW each and four diesel generators, 300 kW each, were installed.
The stock of fuel was placed in tanks (1,590 tons), located in a double bottom, and in side tanks (1,830 tons). If necessary, it was possible to take in addition up to 200 tons of fuel to feed differential tanks and another 300 tons to oil-handling and feed tanks. The total stock of lubricating oil was 90 tons, diesel fuel for diesel generators - 80 tons, feedwater for boilers - 317 tons. The weight of the power plant was 1911 tons.
The crew of the cruiser consisted of 1057 officers, midshipmen, foremen and sailors. The commander of the ship was located in the cabin (office, bedroom, bathroom, dining room). Senior assistant commander of the ship, commanders of combat units, chiefs of services, deputy commander of the ship for political affairs, party organizer, propagandist,Secretary of the Komsomol committee, division commanders of the BCh-2, warhead-5, chief boatswain and representative of the Special Division - in separate single cabins (30 pieces in total) located on the 2nd deck. The remaining officers lived in double cabins on the 3rd (armored) deck of the ship. In the same place in four-bed cabins hosted warrant officers. For the sailors and foremen of fixed-term service, 50 Kubrikov of various capacities were intended.
The officers took food in the mess-room; there was a separate galley for the commanding staff. The midshipmen and extra term soldiers fed in a separate mess-room in two shifts. The sailors and the foremen of the urgent service ate right in the cabin, where there were removable tables and cabinets for dishes. The ship was equipped with a bath for military service personnel, as well as separate showers for officers. To ensure the personal needs of the personnel, the ship was equipped with a laundry and steam trowel.
Officers and warrant officers for cultural events gathered in the mess-room of officers. It had a lounge with billiards and tables. A club was specially equipped for holding mass cultural events of the military service personnel.
Twelve 152-mm guns of the B-38 in 4 three-gun turrets MK-5-bis, were located in two groups - two towers in the bow and stern.
The units had their own “Shtag-B” radar rangefinder (2nd and 3rd towers) and an AMO-3 optical sight. The towers could be controlled both from the inside (local control) and remotely from the central artillery post using the D-2 remote control system. The detection range of the surface target was 120 kb, the range of accurate tracking - 100 kb.
For fire control, the Civil Code was the PUS system "Lightning AC-68-bis."
The commander of the artillery fire control group of the main caliber division controlled the fire. He was at his command post - in the central artillery post.
Art installation SM-5-1
The ship was protected against the light forces of a potential enemy by twelve 100-mm universal guns mounted in two-gun stabilized SM-5-1 installations. Ammunition included high-explosive, high-explosive, zenith and lighting projectiles (cartridges), as well as projectiles of passive radio-radar interference.
The shooting control was provided by the Zenit-68-bisA system and a universal coordinate transducer with APLC “Anchor”. Radar "Anchor" was intended to control the firing of universal caliber guns. The station had a device for automatic tracking of targets in three coordinates. The detection range of airborne targets was up to 30-160 kbt, of surface targets - up to 150-180 kbt.
The only thing I did not understand, for which the calculation for the tower (for installation) here was 19 people! Why are there 19 people? What were their responsibilities?
Air defense of the ship in the near zone was provided by 32 37-mm submachine guns 70-K, in twin B-11 artillery systems. The V-11M art system was put into service in 1946. The guns were mounted in a common cradle and had water cooling. Meals - clip-on, manual. Guidance in both planes is manual. To protect the crew from onboard weapons, AU aircraft were equipped with a 10 mm shield covering the gun platform. The maximum firing range for the horizon was 8400 m, for air targets - 4000 m. The ammunition consisted of fragmental-tracer and armor-piercing-tracer unitary cartridges.
Installations were placed in two groups, fore and aft, as part of 4 batteries, 2 on each side. Installations B-11 could fire air targets on sharp bow and stern angles relative to the plane of the ship.
The design of the 30-mm paired automatic installation of the KL-302 was launched in 1956. The installation of the KL-302 with the Lynx PUS was adopted in 1962 under the name AK-230.
For firing from an automaton, ammunition with an electrocapsule bushing is used, which is triggered when a current of 0.24 - 0.65 A is passed in the firing circuit. The power supply is automatic.
Modes of operation of the machine: shooting is carried out in bursts of up to 100 rounds of continuous fire on the barrel, after which the barrel is cooled for 15-20 minutes with the external cooling system turned on. In exceptional cases, shooting is allowed before the total ammunition load (500 rounds) is spent with intervals between each 100 rounds of 15-20 seconds. In this case, non-stop shooting is provided, but the barrel bore is completely worn out.
Ammunition AK-230 includes: high-explosive fragmentation shell OF-83; high-explosive projectile f-83; Br-83 armor-piercing tracer.
The torpedo armament of the cruiser consisted of two five-tube 533-mm apparatus PTA-53-68-bis with the PUTS Stalingrad-2T-68-bis system.
Three modes of TA targeting were provided: automatic, semi-automatic (central guidance) and hardware. Data on surface targets came from the special torpedo radar Zarya. The detection range of the surface target is 320 kb (battleship) or 110 kb (minesweeper), the observation range of bursts from artillery shells is 25-110 kb.
TA combat crews could launch from 1 to 5 torpedoes in sequence or in one volley at an enemy located from either side. Used torpedoes СЭТ-53, СЭТ-65, 53-65К. Initially, the ejection of the torpedo was carried out by a powder charge, later pneumatic modifications appeared.
The cruiser had the equipment for setting mines.
And who knows what this thing is?
Let's go down to the mess.
December 12, 1954 - Captain 2nd Rank M.Z. Lyubichev.
October 8, 1955 - Captain 2nd Rank G. E. Golota.
From September 27, 1958 - Captain 2nd Rank S. M. Fedorov.
C September 4, 1961 - Captain 2nd Rank V. M. Leonenkov.
C August 12, 1966 - Captain 2nd Rank N. K. Fedorov.
October 24, 1969 - Captain 2nd Rank K. I. Zhilin.
From February 19, 1971 - Captain 2nd Rank A. A. Gusev.
September 28, 1973 - Captain 2nd Rank V.V. Rasputin.
From December 18, 1976 - Captain 2nd Rank A. A. Garmashov.
October 15, 1979 - Captain 2nd Rank N. I. Malinka.
C June 22, 1985 - Captain 2nd Rank Yu. N. Ryabenky.
It is interesting that according to the charter, sailors and sailors could be engaged in some kind of official duties on the ship for up to 30 days without rising to the deck. This is a whole town, where 1200 people live.
Galley or khnya in our.
by designation nothing is clear
Yet it is very interesting to watch and stroll around here such huge guns. This is not "Aurora". But here it is a pity that there is no opportunity to get into the tower.
And the antenna here is not measured at all!
In general, the ship looks very harmonious on the waterfront. I think it used to be pustov without him.
He has already become a direct participant in the walking life for residents and guests of the city.
But I do not know what the ship was.
August 23-25, 2001 was transferred to Novorossiysk. On August 25, 2001, the cruiser became part of the Novorossiysk naval base.The berth No. 33 of the Novorossiysk Commercial Sea Port (Naval Station) became the berth of the ship.
The cruiser was first opened for visitors as a ship-museum on Navy Day on July 28, 2002.
On October 1, 2012, “Mikhail Kutuzov” became part of the Central Naval Museum as a branch - the ship of military glory “Mikhail Kutuzov” with a place of deployment in the port of Novorossiysk.
In 1962, the feature film “Land Leave” was filmed on board the cruiser with B.C. Vysotsky.
353900, Krasnodar region,