The history of Russian industry in photographs: Samara Industrial Part 2.

In the 80s of the XIX century, large European industrialists began to invest in the development of the economy of Samara significant investments. Suffice it to say that the Nobel Brothers Oil Production Association, created by Swedish entrepreneurs in 1879 in Baku, opened its representative office in our city four years later. In Russia, including in Samara, the Swedes rather quickly took leading positions in the field of oil production, oil refining and oil trade
Oil tanks of the partnership of the Nobel brothers in Samara. Late 19th century

Oil tanks of the partnership of the Nobel brothers in Samara. Late 19th century

In 1881, Austrian industrialist Alfred von Wakano founded a European-type brewery in our city, from which, according to analysts, the history of a fundamentally new stage of development of the entire Samara economy began
View of the Zhiguli brewery. The beginning of the twentieth century

Kukhmisterskaya Zhigulevsky brewery. The beginning of the twentieth century

The owner of the plant not only increased the production of beer (and, accordingly, its own capital), but also actively invested in the development of the social sphere of Samara. For example, at the expense of the Von Wakano enterprise, housing for workers and employees was built, a steam boiler room was built for their heating, canteens and public service facilities were opened.
The building of the Zhiguli brewery, which housed housing for workers and employees. The beginning of the twentieth century

Working dining Zhiguli brewery. 1914

From the power plant
Power plant Zhiguli brewery. The beginning of the twentieth century

Power plant Zhiguli brewery. The beginning of the twentieth century

the premises of the city theater and the Strukovsky garden were illuminated. In addition, von Wakano, together with other industrialists, financed large urban projects — in particular, the development of electricity, water supply and sewage in Samara.

In the last third of the 19th century, the rapid development of the building materials industry in the Zhiguli and Sokol mountains began. In the vicinity of the villages Shiryaevo and Krestovaya Polyana, quarries worked


Mountain with quarries near the village Vanyushino in Zhiguli. Late 19th century

Quarry in the Zhiguli mountains. The beginning of the twentieth century

Quarry in the Zhiguli mountains. The beginning of the twentieth century

where large volumes of quarrystone were mined, which were required more and more to lay in the foundations of large public buildings and new industrial enterprises. Here limestone and dolomite deposits were developed for the production of hydrated lime. A little later, mining began and the Sokol Mountains. And in the same years, mining of asphalt limestone began in the area of ​​the village of Pechersk.
Development of asphalt layers in the Zhiguli mountains

Pechersk asphalt plant. Smelting asphalt from stone. Figure 1899

Pechersk asphalt plant. Extraction of stone in the gallery. Figure 1899

Pechersk asphalt and Bakhilovsky tar plants of the Syzran-Pechersk Asphalt and Mining Industry. 1898

Asphalt and tar, which was used as a fuel and technical lubricant, were melted at the local plant.

The basis of the state treasury

In 1885, we had established a provincial and district presence for drinking affairs.They gave permission to open pubs and distilleries.


The distillery in the village of Rozhdestveno, built in 1896, belonged to the merchant Umnov

According to official data, after 1895, income from monopoly production and sale of alcohol reached 65 percent of the total income to the budget of the Samara province.

In the early 90s, the leadership of the Ministry of Finance decided to concentrate in the hands of the government not only the whole wine trade, but also the production of alcohol and alcoholic beverages. According to ministry officials, as well as activists of numerous societies of sobriety, only in this way could the people be protected from excessive drinking. As an experiment, state-owned alcohol production was first decided to be introduced only in the Volga region - in the Perm, Ufa, Orenburg and Samara provinces.

In our city, the quarter at the intersection of Moscovnaya and Solovyna streets, near the railway station (now the corner of Lev Tolstoy and Nikitinskaya streets) was recognized as the most convenient for the construction of a distillery. The construction of the company began in the second half of 1894, and at the same time, state-owned wine storehouses began to grow alongside it.In the context of uninterrupted financing, the pace of construction of the enterprise was high, and already in July 1895 a new state-owned plant produced its first products.


The building of the Samara alcohol-cleaning plant on Moskatnaya street

In its workshops 123 workers were employed, not counting engineering and technical specialists. The same objects during this period were built in the three other provinces that were part of the experiment area.

Total tax collections from the trade in wine, vodka and alcohol in the Samara province in 1895 amounted to 3.91 million rubles (for comparison: in 1894 - 2.94 million rubles). Excise duties from the production of wine products in 1895 amounted to more than 1.3 million rubles (this included excise taxes from the state-owned factory for the period from July to December, as well as fees from private factories). In subsequent years, excise income from alcohol production in the Samara province continued to grow. In the end, they reached the planned targets and even blocked them. So, if in 1897 the excise tax from the state distillery we were equal to only 4.46 million rubles, in 1906 it already reached 11 million rubles.

By 1900, that is, in the first half century of its existence as a provincial center, Samara has changed very noticeably.By that time, 2,981,687 people lived in the province, including over 70 thousand people in Samara. By this time, by the will of history, our city was in the center of a vast, dynamically developing economic region, at the intersection of the most important transport arteries. The main source of accumulation of wealth in Samara was still income from trade, but at the same time, in the last decade of the 19th century, the metalworking industry also developed rapidly.


Lebedev plant in Samara. The beginning of the twentieth century

Mechanical plant Zhuravlev-Behnke. Late 19th century

Not for nothing at this time for the high rates of economic development, our city was called "Russian Chicago."

At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the first power stations appeared in Samara, and at first they were private energy enterprises. We have already said that a sufficiently powerful power plant at the brewery in the 1980s was built by its owner Alfred von Wakano. In 1898, when the Samara Provincial Prison, which had just opened at that time, began to operate a local power station, which, although it belonged to a public institution, provided only prison facilities with energy


Samara provincial prison. The beginning of the twentieth century

But the first public power station, which was located on the banks of the Volga in the area of ​​Simbirsk descent, was commissioned in our city only in November 1900. Its successor is the Samara State District Power Plant, which operates in the city to this day.
First Samara power plant. The beginning of the twentieth century

Samara. City power station. The beginning of the twentieth century

Samara. City power station. The beginning of the twentieth century

The railway came to the provincial center in the 1970s, but the permanent railway bridge across the Samara River was opened only in 1904
Locomotive in Samara. 1909

After that, the city’s message to the South Urals, Siberia and Central Asia improved dramatically. The further development of rail transport noticeably raised the value of Samara not only as a shopping center, but also as an important transit point, at which transit cargo moved from land routes to the waterway.

So, only during 1897, 11 million poods of various cargo arrived at the Samara railway station, and 8.6 million poods were sent further along the steel main. It was at this time that the number of railway and port workers and employees, which soon constituted a significant part of the Samara proletariat, quickly grew in our city.

Of course, some of the remaining goods were sold directly in the city, but the bulk of them went in transit through Samara and were soon overloaded to water transport. At the same time, in our city there was also a return transfer of cargoes - from waterways to railways. To this end, the cargo pier per year took up to thousands of ships. In addition, Samara at that time was the most important point of transit trade in forest, which arrived to us in rafts from forest guberny provinces of the Upper Volga.


Samara. Forest Pier early twentieth century

Since the most important commodity in the Samara market at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century was still grain, the five largest steam mills in our city crushed to 6 million pounds of wheat during the year, and the only water mill to 2 million pounds. Also, the fat of the Samara mine was also in great demand at wholesale fairs, and a huge amount of raw locally produced leather was shipped to our domestic and foreign markets - up to one and a half thousand pounds per year.

Due to the growing needs of the Russian army in the Samara province in 1911, large defense enterprises were commissioned.First of all, this is the Pipe Plant in Samara (in Soviet times - Plant No. 42, and later - the production association “Maslennikov Plant”)


Samara pipe factory. 1914

Samara pipe factory. 1914

In the shop of the Samara pipe factory. 1914

Simultaneously with him, near the village of Tomylovo - Sergievsky Samara plant of explosives (in Soviet times - the plant number 15 in the city of Chapaevsk, and now - the association "Polymer"). At that time, the named plants quickly became one of the largest industrial productions not only in the Samara province, but also in the whole of Russia.
Shipment of shells in the warehouse of the Samara plant of explosives. 1914

This was the period of the highest economic prosperity of the Samara province. Budget revenues from our region at that time were called the "cornerstone of the imperial treasury." At the same time, experts believed that the Samara region had an excellent future prospects for economic development during the entire twentieth century.

However, these brilliant plans were prevented by the outbreak of the First World War, and the two Russian revolutions and the civil war that followed soon completely destroyed all hopes for the harmonious development of the province’s economy and the increase in the welfare of its population.


Samara in the early twentieth century

A source
R.S.Dear owners and shareholders, representatives of the press services of companies, marketing departments and other interested parties, if your company has something to show, “How this is done and why this is so!”, We are always happy to take part. Feel free to email usand tell us about yourself by inviting us to visit you.







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