Simple technology for pouring concrete floor

One of the important stages in the construction technology of a modern building is the pouring of the concrete floor in the future room. It is best to perform this part of the construction work after the completion of the laying of the basement of the building, if, of course, the weather favors. But in principle, you can do it later.
Creating a soil base.
The fact is that the surface of the floor is usually made flush with the top of the cap. This guideline allows you to determine at what depth inside the built-up space you need to prepare the earth foundation for the fill. It is very important to immediately remove the fertile soil layer throughout the territory being prepared for concreting. The earthen base should be 20 cm below the top of the basement, and in the case when it is required to make the floor warmed, the thickness of the insulation should be taken into account. After removing the fertile layer, it may be necessary either to further deepen, or raise the level of the base surface with the help of imported alumina.
remove the fertile soil layer

If the soil in the built-up area is loose or the ground needs to be poured to the required level, then in the process of preparing the base surface it is necessary to carry out sealing measures using a vibrating plate or manual tamping.
add to the required level

It is important to consider that ramming a large layer of earth at once, to achieve the expected result will not work, which is why in the future the floor may subside and cracks will appear in the concrete. The earth needs to be compacted as it is added every 5 cm of the layer created.
The formation of a pillow of sand.
When the ground foundation is prepared, you can start laying a layer of sand 10 cm thick. It will not hurt to stretch several parallel lines at the height of the surface of the created floor to perform the necessary measurements so that you can easily control what level the sand is to be made.
start sanding

It is necessary to evenly distribute it, using the shovels and the rule, and also to tamp it well in the manner described above.
evenly distribute

Upon completion of the formation of the sand layer, in principle, you can begin to concreting, but if you plan to make the floor with a heat-insulating layer, then you need to lay insulation before the start of the pouring.
When the floor is required to warm.
A suitable material by which the insulation of the concrete floor in the house is carried out is plain or extruded foam. The second option is more reliable, since it is much denser than the first, which reduces the risk of subsidence of the concrete layer, leading to deformation and cracking of the floor during operation of the building. Sheets of expanded polystyrene are simply placed on a sand pillow, trying to dock them so as not to leave gaps between them.
concrete floor insulation

If necessary, details of the appropriate dimensions are cut from the whole sheet to cover the missing areas. On top of the foam does not interfere with putting a waterproofing coating, for example, a dense oilcloth.
from a sheet cut out details

In order to distribute the load on the insulation during floor operation more evenly, it is necessary to place a metal mesh for reinforcement in the lower part of the concrete layer. To do this, it must be placed on top of the foam before the start of pouring.
distributed more evenly

When there is a need for reinforcement.
In premises used for industrial purposes, the operational load on the floor can be quite large due to the movement of various transport and loading equipment or storage of heavy products. In this case, reinforcement of concrete during the pouring process is carried out.
the need for reinforcement

To perform this task, it is necessary to pre-tie the frame of steel rods, the diameter of which is taken depending on the expected load during the operation of the floor. The frame is made of lattice, welding or twisting wire between themselves longitudinally and perpendicularly laid pieces of reinforcement, the distance between which is also due to technological calculations of the required strength of the reinforced concrete structure.
pre-tie the frame

Installation of beacons.
The next preparatory step on the way to pouring the floor is to install guides that allow you to set the height of the level of its surface, called beacons. According to them, the rule will tighten the concrete, so that its surface will be flat. Usually such a lighthouse is a rectangular or round metal tube. But to install the pipe in the desired position, that is, in such a way that its top was at the same level as the top of the base, special props should be created from fresh concrete. So that the props over the entire area prepared for the pouring, have the corresponding and the same height, you can use the level in a fixed position to measure this parameter.
Installation of beacons

When the supports for the lighthouses are made, pipes can be laid on them, after which the concreted space will be ready for pouring.
Installation of beacons

The process of concreting.
It is important to properly organize the timely delivery of concrete to the place of work, since the concrete structure being created must be monolithic.
If the pouring area is small, then you can knead the working mixture yourself with the help of several assistants. But filling more space means increasing the number of workers and, possibly, using additional concrete mixers, since it will be difficult to make concrete floor monolithic by small forces because the production process will be stretched to infinity.
The easiest way to order factory concrete, which is delivered by a mixer to a construction site and with the help of a pump, as well as the guide that is included in the kit of this machine, is unloaded directly into the filled space.
Concreting process

Of course, you need a few people who will quickly distribute the working substance with shovels.
Concreting process

Two more workers should gradually tighten the concrete along the lighthouses with the help of a rule or a flat board, leveling its surface.
Concreting process

It is important to pull the rule not only along the pipe, but at the same time also to make them move, resembling work with a saw.
Upon completion of this procedure, while the concrete mixture is still not frozen, it is necessary to remove the pipes from it, which served as beacons, and immediately fill the grooves with fresh concrete.
Concreting process

Then you need to wipe the concrete with a special tool to release a liquid film on its surface.
Concreting process

The liquid that has come out is a sign that it’s time to start ironing, that is, to apply a thin layer of cement 2-3 mm thick on top. In the end it remains only to smooth the surface of the floor, which can be done with the help of an apparatus commonly called a helicopter, after which the surface of the floor will look like it is shown in the photo below.
start ironing

The presented technology of filling the floor is the most simple and economical, with regard to technological nuances. More complex and expensive methods may include additional measures in the course of insulation, reinforcement, preparation of the foundation for casting, but in most cases there is no need to use these methods. By adhering to the scheme described above, you can be completely confident in the reliability and durability of the concrete structure being created.

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