Participial sacrament: example, definition, rules
In order to give expressiveness to writing, one of the means is used - sacramental circulation. Examples of its use can be found in the literature already from ancient times. After all, he came from the Old Slavonic language. This explains the use of sacrament turnover precisely in writing, because Old Slavic is the language of church literature. Our ancestors spoke in Old Russian.
Sacramental turnover: definition
Communion and adjoining dependent words are called a simple phrase - participle. Example:girl jumping rope. Here jumping rope is a participial turn. It consists of several parts: the sacrament itself, dependent words, the word being defined. The sacrament turnover in a sentence is a separate definition. It is necessary to distinguish between the participle and the participle. Examples:
I finally read a book that had long been gathering dust on the shelf.
The sacrament turn "long been dusting on the shelf" plays the role of a separate definition (answers the question: which one?).
The puppy, frightened by us, ran away.
In this proposal, the verbal communion takes place: “having frightened us”. He adjoins the verb-predicate "ran away", moreover, answers the question: what to do? and is a circumstance.
The participle is the main component of the sacramental circulation.
Communion combines the characteristics of the verb and the adjective. From the verb this part of speech took reflexivity, kind, tense (present and past) and transitivity. With the name of the adjective participle has in common the ability to change by gender, number and case, the possibility of forming a short form, as well as the questions: which one? which one For example:
- thinking(what?) - denotes the one who thinks;
- turningd (what?) - denotes the one who turned;
- built(what?) - indicates what they built.
On the participle as an independent part of speech, disputes are still ongoing. Some linguists define it as a special form of the verb.
What else is involved in sacrament
In addition to the sacrament, the sacrament turn includes:
1. Dependent words.They are asked a direct question from the participle. For example:
Table covered with a tablecloth.
In this case, "covered" - the participle. Answers the question: what? Indicates a sign of action (the one that is covered). From the participle we ask a question to the word with a tablecloth (covered with what? - with a tablecloth). Accordingly, “tablecloth” is a dependent word.
2. The word being defined is the one to which the sacrament turn refers. Example:
Baby running around the apartment.
“Running around the apartment” is a participial turn (“running around” is a participle, the dependent word is “around the apartment”). To this sacrament turn, we ask a question from the word "child." What child? Running around the apartment. Hence, the word defined is “child.”
Rule of isolation
Consider the cases in which the participle is isolated (separated by commas). Examples, the rule is as follows: if the part of speech we are considering is after the word being defined, then it must be marked with commas.
The flower growing in the wasteland was very beautiful.
Here the word “flower” is defined, the participial revolution is “growing on a wasteland”. Separate definition is after the word being defined, respectively, is separated by commas.
Consider another example:The flower growing in the wasteland was very beautiful.
In this case, the position of participial change has changed: the word being defined stands after a separate definition, so commas are not needed.
However, there are cases in which the setting of commas is necessary:
- Always detached when the word is defined-personal pronoun participle. Example:Anticipating trouble, I tossed and turned in bed for a long time. The sacramental turn "premonitory misfortune" refers to the personal pronoun "I", therefore it is allocated with commas, regardless of position. Compare:I, anticipating trouble, long tossed in bed.
- The added value of a circumstance that participial has. For example:Blinded by the glare of the sea, we did not dare to enter the water for a long time.. Here the sacrament turn "blinded by the glare of the sea" has the additional meaning of the reason: from the predicate, you can ask an additional question: why haven't they decided for a long time? Because they were blinded by the highlights of the sea.
- Other sentence members break the word being defined and the sacrament turn. Example:The month showing the first rays appears in the sky.Here the participle turn is “showing the first rays,” and the word being defined is “month”.Between them there are still the predicate "appears" and the circumstance with the preposition "in heaven". In this case, a comma allocation of participial traffic is necessary.
When commas are not needed
There are cases when commas are not required for a sacramental turnover. We have already dismantled one of the options when the sacrament turn would not be allocated with commas: if it is located before the word being defined.
The sun-soaked world surrounded us.
In this position of sacramental circulation, commas are not needed.
There are two more cases where you do not need to allocate the sacramental turnover. Examples:
1. If it relates not only to the subject, but also to the predicate:
To the tent we ran wet through.
In this case, it is possible to ask a question to the participial “wet through” one as from a pronoun-subject “we” (which?), But also from the predicate “ran” (how?).
2. Accusative case of a personal pronoun acting as a defined word. For example:
We found him lying on the brutal battlefield.
The definable word is the personal pronoun "him", standing in the accusative case (whom?).
Which of the above can be concluded? If you do not know whether to isolate the communion or not, pay attention to such points:
- The location of the turnover relative to the defined word.
- What expressed the defined word and in what form it stands.