Parenchymal organ: list, structure and functions

In the human body, all organs are divided by type and are hollow and parenchymal. Each body has its own functions, but together they create the necessary conditions for the existence of each other.


The parenchymal organ is dense and compact and consists of a stroma and a parenchyma.

It consists of the main part of the body - many cells that perform the main functions. The consistency is soft.parenchymal organ

Main features:

  • A large number of meaty substance.
  • Large but compact look.
  • Not round, but elongated, slightly flattened.
  • The presence of a large number of excretory ducts secreting a secret.
  • The presence of a serous membrane that holds the parenchyma and gives the body shape.

Stroma also has a translation from the Greek - "litter".

The stroma retains the organ, forming, protecting, supporting and nourishing it with essential substances. A network of vessels and nerve endings is stretched along this membrane.It is not only on top, but also grows into the body. In medicine, these partitions are called trabeculae.

What organs are called parenchymal?

parenchymal organ structure

Parenchymal organs include:

  • Brain.
  • Lungs.
  • Pancreas.
  • Buds.
  • Liver.
  • Spleen.
  • Sex glands of men and women.

Each of these bodies performs different functions. The structure of parenchymal organs is almost the same. Consider them in more detail.


The brain is at the head of all processes in the body. It contains neurons that process a large amount of information and various signals coming from the body. Many scientific papers have been written about this body, but not a single scholar has been able to understand its functionality.


parenchymal organs include

The lungs supply the body with oxygen, which is involved in the transportation of blood cells. If this organ is affected by a disease and is not able to fully carry out the functions assigned to it, all organs begin to suffer.


Another parenchymal organ is the pancreas, which performs endocrine and exocrine functions. The first is responsible for the production of insulin, the second - for the production of fermented juice (enzyme), which allows food to split into components.It contains hormones that help to absorb useful substances from food.


The liver is the largest organ in the human body, its weight can reach 2 kg. And also it performs many functions:

  • Takes part in protein, carbohydrate, vitamin exchanges.
  • Neutralizes toxic substances that enter the body through the gastrointestinal tract, and neutralizes products formed due to the exchange of proteins.
  • Promotes the production of bile. This occurs when hemoglobin, passing through the liver, is transformed into bilirubin, which promotes the synthesis of bile. And it is necessary to emulsify fats and stimulate the absorption of the products of their processing.
  • During fetal development, the liver is responsible for blood formation.


Kidneys are human parenchymal organs. They perform excretory functions. But they also produce hormones, one of which contributes to water retention in the body, due to which blood circulation occurs. The excretory function is necessary for filtration and secretion of waste products.

In the abdominal cavity there is a special bed for this organ.At the same time, one kidney is located slightly lower than the other because of the pressure on the liver. Their weight ranges from 150 to 200 grams.


human parenchymal organs

The spleen is a parenchymal organ that performs many functions, but the production of lymphoid cells, which are transformed into lymphocytes, dominates them. It is also capable of retaining bacteria and threatening particles of a different origin, performing immune tasks. Recognizes antigens and sends signals about their immunity.

In cases where, against the background of certain diseases, the body does not cope with the production of blood cells, the spleen takes over these functions partly on itself. It is a repository of iron and the third part of platelets. In cases of injury, they compensate for the loss and help to stop the bleeding.

Consider more examples of parenchymal organs.


The sex glands are responsible for producing hormones that determine gender, affecting the course of chronic diseases. For men and women, there is a set of necessary hormones.

Hormones for women

Female hormones and their functions:

  • Estrogen is necessary for normal functioning of the genital organs.It influences the condition of the skin, hair, is responsible for character traits and body shape.
  • Progesterone plays a major role in carrying a child. Often called the hormone of pregnancy.
  • Prolactin is responsible for the production of milk during breastfeeding, but if it is not raised due to breastfeeding, then ovulation stops. Responsible for water-salt balance.

The role of hormones for men

  • PHG contributes to the production of testosterone, affects the maturation of sperm.
  • LH regulates testosterone production by Leydig cells, takes part in the production of proteins that bind the hormones of the sex glands. Improves the permeability of the testes.
  • Testosterone is responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics and the formation of the skeleton, the development of muscles. Normalizes the emotional state and regulates the sebaceous glands.
  • Prolactin regulates the water-salt balance and stimulates high-quality maturation of spermatozoa.
  • GSPG is a glycoprotein that is involved in the distribution of sex hormones.


examples of parenchymal organs

Some of the above organs are located in the abdominal cavity in such a way that it is easy to damage them.For example, the liver and spleen are equally often injured.

Features injuries:

  • Without gust capsules (subcapsular injuries and central hematomas).
  • In violation of the integrity of the stroma (cracks, tears, tears).

An injury that does not cause damage to the membrane may be almost asymptomatic. But after 10-15 days, due to physical exertion, a rupture (2-phase) with a severe outpouring of blood may occur. This is different parenchymal organ.

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