Notable families who changed the fate of Russia
In the history of Russia there were many families who glorified their surname and influenced the fate of the country for several centuries.
Among them are the nouveau riche Demidovs and Morozovs, the descendants of the alien Europeans Tolstoy and Golitsyns, the "native" aristocrats Volkonskie and Pushkins, as well as many others.
The genus of famous patrons of art and founders of the metallurgical industry in Russia originates from the blacksmiths who lived in the village of New Pavshino, not far from Tula.
The state-owned blacksmith Nikita Demidovich in 1696, Peter I ordered to repair a broken German pistol. Nikita did a great job, and even showed a national copy of German weapons that was no worse.
So a simple blacksmith won a noble title and was able to build the first water-promoting iron plant on the outskirts of Tula.
In 1702, he had only 2 factories, by the year 36 - already about 35. His son Akinfiy, who was called the “metallurgical emperor”, not only increased his father’s condition 10 times, but also helped Russia leave the Swedes and the British producing the best weapon in the world.True, Nikita's grandson - Prokofy Akinfeevich - was not at all interested in the family business, but he was a generous philanthropist. The Demidans sacrificed a lot for the good of Moscow State University, supported gifted students and young professors, allocated money for new buildings and donated rare collections. One of the surviving gifts for the library of Moscow State University is the 13th century French Bible.
The family of Morozov goes back to the peasants of the village of Zuyevo, Bogorodsky district. Savva Timofeevich, being a serf, managed to put together a fortune in the production and sale of fabrics, and then buy himself freedom.
Four of his five sons continued the work of his father, standing at the head of the largest textile manufactories in Russia.
The first to engage in charity began one of the sons - Timofey, who built schools, hospitals, dormitories, baths for workers and their families. Well, the most prominent representative of the family was the grandson of Savva I - Savva Timofeevich. His annual income of 250 thousand rubles (for comparison - the annual salary of the minister did not exceed 30 thousand) and a generous soul allowed not to skimp on donations. The most famous of his “brainchild” is the first publicly accessible Moscow Art Theater in Russia.
A descendant of a freed peasant from Mosalsk, Kaluga region, Ivan Fedorovich Mamontov earned capital on wine payoffs. The turning point in his fate was an acquaintance with the engineer Fyodor Chizhov, who suggested investing in the Yaroslavl Railway. In the first year after the launch of the road, the Mammoths received more than 460 thousand rubles of profit.
The fourth son of Ivan Fedorovich - Sawa - art loved more than entrepreneurship. After failures with the management of the “railway business,” he even ended up in the Taganskaya prison. His property was sold almost completely. The ill-fated railway has gone for nothing to state ownership, some of the shares went to other entrepreneurs, including relatives of Sergei Witte.
The genealogy of Tolstoy goes back to the ancient Germanic family. In the XIV century, their ancestor left Germany and settled in Chernigov. The surname was obtained by descendants from the nickname of Andrei Kharitonovich, who was nicknamed Tolstoy in Moscow.
According to the fate of the Fat, you can trace the entire history of Russia. Among them were the military, and officials, and governors, and composers, and navigators, and journalists.
But the world-famous surname was brought by Lev Nikolayevich, who, by the way, considered all Fatty “wild”, that is, too harsh and straightforward. More than three hundred descendants of the Tolstoy now bind their relatives to the United States, Russia and other European countries. Once every two years they all gather in Yasnaya Polyana.
The ancestor of the Pleshcheyevs, the boyar Fyodor Byakont, arrived in Moscow at the end of the 13th century. He "replaced" the Moscow princes Yuri and Ivan Danilovich when they went to the Horde. His eldest son later became Metropolitan of Kiev and All Russia Simeon. But the founder of the noble family of the Pleshcheyevs is considered to be another son of Fyodor, Alexander, who for broad shoulders was called “Pleschey”.(The author, “weeping” means “he who claps his hands.” Compare with the Ukrainian word “pleskati”, which is translated as “clapping in the palm of your hand.”)
Today, Aleksey Pleshcheyev, the authoritative writer and publisher who played a significant role in the revolutionary movement of Russia, is known more than others.
The literary talent of the poet was valued by the revolutionaries of Ukraine, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and the translation of one of the poems “Go! Without fear and doubt "and at all became the anthem of the Bulgarian revolutionaries.
And also Alexey Nikolaevich wrote wonderful poems for children, which formed the basis of Tchaikovsky’s cycle “16 songs for children” and became textbook.
The most numerous princely family in Russia goes back to the Lithuanian dynasty Gediminovich. The princes Golitsyn for six centuries played a prominent role in the fate of Russia. Among them were the boyars, field marshals, officials, diplomats, senators, artists and musicians.
One of the descendants of Gediminas, Boris Alekseevich, went down in history as the “uncle” of Peter the Great. It was he who was entrusted to instruct the young tsar on the right path, although the “funny man Borisko” did not always cope with his task. He was one of the most influential people of his time, and ended his days in monastic robes in the Florischeva desert.
One more descendants of Gediminovich come from lieutenant-general Yury Yuryevich Trubetskoy. The most famous representative of the family was Sergei Petrovich Trubetskoy, who participated in the preparation of the Decembrist uprising.
In Soviet textbooks, he appeared solely as a coward who betrayed his comrades and did not come to the Senate Square.However, today it is known that in the “outrageous stories” about Trubetskoy’s treachery there was not a word of truth.
Prince Ivan Andreevich Obolensky received the nickname Dolgoruky for his rancor and vindictiveness, whose family tree begins with Rurik himself. But the Dolgorukovs do not have common roots with the founder of Moscow, Yury Dolgoruky, as one would assume.
They participated in the suppression of the uprising of Stepan Razin and the conquest of the Crimea, and even tried to get the Russian throne. Marfa Dolgorukov was the wife of Ivan the Terrible, though not for long, as she was drowned, and Catherine Dolgorukova became the wife of Emperor Alexander II.
The Vorontsov family goes back to the Varangian warrior Shimon Afrikanovich, who arrived in Kiev at the beginning of the XI century. The “warrior gene” was apparently embedded in the DNA of all descendants. Voivode boyar Semyon Ivanovich participated in a campaign against Mahmet-Aminya. His son Mikhail Semenovich in 1522 went against the Crimean Tatars.
His brother, Fyodor Semenovich, actively fought for power under the nominally ruling three-year-old Ivan the Terrible. But one of the brightest representatives of the clan was Alexander Romanovich, who began his career with the service in the Izmailovsky regiment and ended it as state chancellor under Alexander I.
The sort originates from the Chernigov prince Michael - the descendant of Rurikovich. The ancestor of the same name was Ivan Yuryevich, who owned the estate on the banks of the river Volkona under Tula.
One of his descendants, Mikhail Konstantinovich Lame, together with Yermak conquered Siberia, and later, being the governor of Borovsk, he did not recognize Falsdmitry who had risen to the city and died during the capture of the Pafnutiev monastery. According to legend, the blood from the fallen body of Michael can not be wiped off the floor until now.
Marriage of Maria Volkonskaya and Count Tolstoy presented the genius of Lev Nikolayevich to Russia and the whole world culture. Another prominent representative of the family, Prince Sergei Grigorievich Volkonsky, went down in history as a hero of the war of 1812, who participated in 58 battles and the crossing of the Berezina. He was also the only acting general who joined the Decembrists.
If the Pushkin family was represented by only one person - Alexander Sergeyevich, it would be quite enough to talk about its influence. The noble family goes back to the legendary Radzsha - the hero of the Neva battle and Alexander Nevsky's retainer.
The ancestor of the family is considered to be Grigori Aleksandrovich, nicknamed The Gun. The surnames were worn by the clergymen, whom they trusted to serve during the royal meal, diplomats and governors, governors, rear admirals and military officers. Alexander Pushkin succinctly told about his ancestors in My Family Tree.
12. The Stroganovs
Where did the genus of industrialists and patrons of the Stroganov family go is not known for certain. According to one of the versions, their distant ancestor was a Tatar, who was sent to serve Dmitry Donskoy and adopted Christianity.
The Stroganovs made a fortune in the salt-mining industry. They opened for Russia Siberia. Supported the royal treasury during the Time of Troubles. In honor of them the Stroganov School of Iconography was named, which donated a landscape to Old Russian painting: behind the figures of saints gulleys, glades, groves, flowers, meandering rivers flash.
The boyar family of Sheremetev goes back to Andrei Kobyle, the boyar of Tsar Ivan Kalita and the ancestor of the Romanovs. Field Marshal and commander Boris Sheremetev was the first in the history of Russia to receive the title of count. His descendants became owners of the famous “Sheremetev State”.
Count Nikolai Petrovich went down in history as a philanthropist and patron of the arts, the founder of the Sheremetev Hospital in Moscow, where the Sklifosofsky Institute was later housed. At the expense of the family, the famous Ostankino manor was built.
The Yusupov family tree has Muslim roots. Only by the end of the 19th century, the male line of the Yusupovs was cut short, therefore, by imperial decree, the title of prince was granted to the husband of the only daughter of the last Yusupov. Princess Zynaida Nikolaevna is the richest woman of the era, but went down in history as the mother of the famous Felix Yusupov, the very one who organized and took an active part in the murder of Rasputin.
The descendants of the Suzdal princes throughout the reign of Rurik were the first contenders for the throne if the Moscow dynasty was interrupted. Ancestor of the Shuisky was the brother of Nevsky, Andrei Yaroslavovich.
Well, the most significant figure of this ancient family can be considered Vasily Ivanovich. Vasily IV Ivanovich became the last Rurikovich on the Russian throne. During the four years of his reign, he was forced to fend off Lzhedmitriev, reflect the Polish-Lithuanian claims and endure the dislike of the people.