Norwegian traveler Roald Amundsen - what did he discover? Conquest of the South Pole
Every traveler-researcher deeply believes that there is nothing insurmountable and impossible in the world. He refuses to accept defeat, even if it is already becoming obvious, and continues to move toward his goal. Antarctica has repeatedly demonstrated to man "his place", until before her fearless Norwegian - Roald Amundsen appeared. He discovered that true courage and heroism can conquer ice and severe frosts.
The years of life of Roald Amundsen were intense. He was born in 1872 in the family of a hereditary navigator and trader. At the age of fifteen, the book of D. Franklin about an expedition in the Atlantic Ocean, which determines his entire future life, falls into his hands. His parents had their plans for the younger child, deciding not to introduce him to the family craft.Mother diligently cleared him a place in the intellectual elite of society, giving after the gymnasium to the medical faculty. But the future polar explorer prepared for another: he diligently went in for sports, hardened his body in every possible way, accustoming himself to cold temperatures. He knew that medicine was not his business. Therefore, two years later, Roal is relieved to leave school, returning to his dream of adventure.
In 1893, the future traveler Roald Amundsen met the Norwegian explorer Astrup, and he does not even consider a different fate than being a polar explorer. He literally became obsessed with the conquest of the poles. The young man set a goal to be the first to set foot on the South Pole.
Becoming a leader
In the years 1894-1896, the life of Roald Amundsen changes dramatically. After completing the navigator's courses, he enters the Belzhyk ship, becoming a member of the Antarctic expedition team. This difficult journey is deprived of the attention of historians, but it was then that people first spent the winter at the icy continent.
The huge ice floes of Antarctica clamped the ship of travelers. Having no other choice, they were doomed to long months of darkness and loneliness.The trials that befell the team were not able to endure everything, many were crazy with difficulties and constant fear. Surrendered to the most persistent. The captain of the ship, unable to cope with the situation, resigned from his office and withdrew from the case. It was precisely these days that Amundsen became the leader.
Despite the toughness of character, Roal was a fair enough person, and first of all he demanded from himself the discipline, accountability and full commitment to the cause. The press often published unflattering reviews about him, exposing the polar explorer to quarrelsome and meticulous. But who can judge the winner, given that it was his team that remained in full force, without death?
On the way to a dream
An interesting fact is in the biography of Roald Amundsen. It turns out that at first he intended to conquer the North Pole, but in preparation for the expedition came the news that Frederick Cook had already outstripped him. A week later, similar news came from the expedition of Robert Peary. Amundsen understands that competition is created between those who want to conquer the unknown. He quickly changes his plans, stopping the selection at the South Pole, and goes ahead of his rivals, saying nothing to anyone.
The schooner reached the shores of Antarctica in January 1911. In the Whale Bay, the Norwegians built a house from the imported materials. They began to carefully prepare for the future campaign on the pole: constant training of people and dogs, re-checking equipment, and the bases with provisions were prepared to 82 ° south latitude.
The first attempt to conquer the South Pole was defeated. A team of eight people came out in early September, but was forced to return because of the rapidly lowering temperature. There were such terrible frosts that even vodka cooled, and the skies did not go through the snow. But Amundsen did not stop the failure.
On October 20, 1911, a new attempt was made to reach the pole. The Norwegians, in a group of five people, approached the border of the ice shelf on November 17 and began climbing the Polar Plateau. Ahead were the hardest three weeks. Remained 550 kilometers.
It should be noted that in the harsh conditions of cold and danger people were constantly under stress, and this could not but affect the relations in the group. Conflicts occurred for any reason.
The expedition was able to overcome the steep glacier at an altitude of 3030 meters above sea level.This segment of the path differed deep cracks. Both dogs and people were exhausted, suffering from mountain sickness. And on December 6, they conquered a height of 3260 meters. The expedition reached the South Pole on December 14 at 3 p.m. The polar explorers made several repeated calculations to dispel the slightest doubt. The estimated place was marked with flags, and then a tent was set up.
The pole was conquered by inflexible people, their stubbornness and aspiration on the verge of madness. And we must pay tribute to the leadership qualities of the most Roal Amundsen. He discovered that victory at the pole, in addition to human dedication and courage, is also the result of clear planning and calculations.
Roald Amundsen is the greatest Norwegian polar explorer who forever left his name in history. He made many discoveries, geographical objects were named in his honor. People called him the Last Viking, and he fully justified this nickname.
Not everyone knows, but the South Pole is not the only thing that Roald Amundsen discovered. He was the first to make a passage in the years 1903-1906 from Greenland to Alaska by the Northwestern passage on a small ship, the Joa.It was in many ways a risky venture, but Amundsen was preparing a lot, which explains his subsequent success. And in 1918-1920 on the ship "Mod" it passes along the northern shores of Eurasia.
On top of this, Roald Amundsen is a recognized pioneer of polar aviation. In 1926 he made the first flight on the airship "Norway" across the North Pole. Subsequently, the passion for aviation cost him his life.
The life of the legendary polar explorer was cut short. The irrepressible nature could not fail to respond when, on May 25, 1928, a distress signal was received from the expedition of the Italian Umberto Nobile in the Barents Sea region.
Fly to help out was not immediately. Despite all the achievements, Roald Amundsen (what he discovered, we reviewed above) still needed money. Therefore, only on June 18, a fearless Norwegian together with the crew flew to the rescue from Tromso on the Lam-47 seaplane, thanks to joint efforts.
In the last message received from Amundsen was the information that they are above the island of Bear. After the connection was lost. The next day, it became apparent that the "Latham-47" was gone. Long searches failed.A few months later, the float and the indented gas tank seaplane were discovered. The commission found that the plane had crashed, resulting in the tragic death of the crew.
Roald Amundsen was a man of great destiny. He remained forever in people's memory as a true conqueror of the Antarctic.