Learning activities. Types of educational activities. Organization of educational activities
A teacher, whether a school teacher or a teacher of a higher educational institution, has a number of tasks, one of which is training. In addition, he must, of course, have an influence on the upbringing and culturological education of schoolchildren or students. Educational activity is one of the primary tasks of a teacher, since it is she who forms for the most part the worldview of the younger generation, providing an understanding of certain realities, the organization of the world, man and society.
What is the purpose
At first glance, this question seems out of place, since even the root of the word "study" is the answer to it. However, as often happens, everything is far from simple. Educational activity does not consist in the system presentation of the program material, which would ensure the minimum assimilation by the student of this or that knowledge.The point is not so much to present information as to teach a child to search for it, use it, systematize and analyze it independently. Thus, with regard to educational activities, we can talk about a kind of bilateral process, in which both the teacher and the child are involved.
The basis of school education
It is quite obvious that it is the educational activity that forms the basis, represents the main principle of the school system, because it is during this period of the child’s life that the information necessary for continued existence is actively obtained. The end result of this process should always be the formation of a full-fledged personality capable of analyzing situations, solving set tasks, interacting with society. At the end of school, the child must master all the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities that will ensure his normal existence in the future. It is educational activity that contributes to this process to the greatest extent.
What you need to do
Successful implementation of this process is simply impossible without the presence of some factors.First of all, the end result of educational activity depends on the competence of the teacher responsible for the consciousness of children. To do this, it must have a set of qualities that contribute to the success of this process.
Not least, of course, success depends on the personal qualities of each individual student and class or group, on the atmosphere in it.
Motivation for learning activities is the first and main key to success. Since the child is best perceives exactly the information that he is interested. There are many ways of motivation, ranging from non-standard type and behavior of the teacher and ending with the use of special equipment.
Why is motivation so important?
By and large, affecting this topic, we should talk about the organization of the educational process as a whole. As mentioned earlier, it is the interest of students in learning should be the primary task of each teacher. To achieve this is far from easy, since there are a number of factors that impede the achievement of this goal. For example, one of the most common can be called the wrong organization of the classes themselves.This could include an irrationally drawn up schedule or an inappropriate duration of the lesson.
The motivation of learning activities also requires the formation of a certain atmosphere in the classroom, since it is very common for children to be constantly distracted, to refuse to learn and to hinder this process in every way.
The teacher in this case should not only interest the student, but also explain to him how important the topic that is being studied in this lesson. Children's learning activities can be stimulated, for example, by setting a problem situation or by distributing tasks for independent work.
Now, when some general provisions are briefly described, let's talk about specific examples of the implementation of educational activities in the classroom at school. Each teacher must be familiar with these techniques for successful work.
Describing the types of learning activities, one should start with engaging the student in the process itself. It has already been said that he should be as interested as possible in obtaining knowledge. You can achieve this result by engaging the child.This can be expressed both in the preparation and reading of reports, and in the full explanation of the material to a classmate. It should be noted that in cases of working in groups, the choice of participants is especially important. Each microcollective should be a weak and strong student. As for the groups themselves, they can be stable throughout the lesson or vary.
Of course, considering the types of educational activities, we should not forget about the problem. Most teachers tend to believe that he is the most effective, although he has a lot of pitfalls.
By this type one should understand the formulation of certain problem situations, in the resolution of which students should take the most direct part. If we talk about specific examples, then this may be the creation of a situation in which the result submitted by the teacher does not correspond to the correct one, or the problem can be considered on both sides. This type of training requires active participation in the process of schoolchildren and contributes not only to the knowledge of the new, but also to the formation of speech, analytical skills, which is important.
Educational activities of the younger student, as well as the student, can be carried out by using additional materials. With regard to the student, this may be the attraction of various Internet resources, visual aids or non-standard ways of presenting information (tables, charts, clusters, and so on). In the case of elementary school, there are excellent techniques specially developed by leading teachers of techniques like “I know - I don’t know - I want to know”, which help not only to determine the level of competence of the student, but also to pay attention to his interests and inclinations.
In this case, the technology of keeping a “logbook” is good, in which students write down various facts and attitudes defined in each particular lesson.
The educational activities of the younger student implies a slightly greater degree of control, since at this age children often have problems with discipline. However, there are advantages in the diversity of its types used. In addition, young children are more likely to participate in various interactive, non-standard forms of organization of the educational process.
The basics of educational activity consist in a clear understanding by the teacher of which method of organization is necessary in each specific situation. This may be frontal, group or individual work. Let's start with the last.
Educational activities of children primarily depend on contact with the teacher, the degree of trust in him. In this regard, individual work with each individual student is an ideal option. This type of organization is best promoted not only by mutual understanding between the teacher and the student, but also by defining abilities, aptitudes, interests, characteristics of the character of the child, knowledge of which the teacher is necessary.
Nevertheless, there is a significant disadvantage of this form of organization of the educational process. First of all, it is, of course, the time factor. The development of training activities of each individual team member requires a very large as moral, empathic and time costs. In addition, this method of organization does not contribute to the formation of a healthy atmosphere within the class.
According to this principle, students' learning activities are more often built; however, group work is also popular in schools. One of the biggest advantages of this type is the possibility of establishing communication within the class. In addition, this is exactly the case when the level of motivation is extremely high (especially if the learning activity of students is of a competitive nature).
The disadvantage of this species is the problem with discipline. When working in groups, students often neglect the established norms of behavior, which is difficult to coordinate with the teacher. However, with an adequate amount of practice, this problem is gradually disappearing.
Finally we got to the last type of work of the teacher with the students. In this case, the formation of educational activities is carried out in relation to the entire class at the same time. If we talk about specific examples, we can divide this species into two subspecies: active and passive activity. The first option can be attributed to lively discussions, debates, in which the whole class participates. However, in this case, the teacher again faces the problem of discipline.
The passive organization of educational activities can be represented by conducting control dictations, essays, testing, and more consists in controlling the knowledge gained than in receiving them.
The educational process is not only students absorbing knowledge, but also their systematization, repetition. What is the ideal reproductive method. Educational and research activities in this case are minimized: students are only required to correctly memorize, understand and reproduce the material received. In order to simplify the task, in such cases all sorts of visual aids are used to improve the systematization of information.
However, this is not necessarily a simple repetition of the material according to a previously prepared scheme provided by the teacher. Reproduction can also be based on the independent compilation of various clusters, mosaics and diagrams. With this approach, the student’s learning activity is activated to a much greater extent, which contributes to a more productive mastery of the material being studied.
In short, the success of the learning process depends on the teacher in the first place. For each student, he must find his own approach, identify the topics of most interest to him, and notice the peculiarities of his character. All this should be skillfully used in the classroom.
Forms of educational activities should be determined by the teacher in strict accordance with the qualities of not only each individual student, but also the entire class, school and educational system as a whole.
Such different lessons
By and large, each lesson consists of a whole series of tricks, tricks and tricks of the teacher, which must be applied so that the class not only works, but also does it productively. Knowledge should not be “disposable” and be forgotten immediately after leaving the school building. That is why it is important that within each lesson there is an actualization of knowledge obtained earlier - a kind of repetition of the material studied. This will help fix it and move it to the long-term memory of the students.
We have already spoken about the importance of motivation before, so once again there is no point in dwelling on this component.
Of course, each lesson should be a new knowledge. Even the label "repetition" does not negate this need. There should always be something new, interesting and informative.
Despite the huge role that the teacher plays in the educational process, learning activities do not have to be limited to the outside of the classroom. This may be the independent work of students with additional literature, sources on the Internet, dictionaries. The task of the teacher in this case - to coordinate this activity, to direct it in the right direction, and most importantly - to encourage.
The education system of our days differs significantly from that of our parents. If earlier the teacher was faced with the task of investing knowledge in the heads of the younger generation, now this is not the case. The modern school works, rather, to teach the correct independent search for the necessary information. The World Wide Web can easily serve as a full-fledged source of knowledge, not only equivalent to the teacher, but also many times superior to it.Nevertheless, it is the teacher who has to teach how to work with this ocean of data. Show how to properly separate the important from the minor.
Despite this, the teacher is first and foremost a friend, a mentor and in a sense a family member. And this must not be forgotten.