Lake Van: description and history
Lake Van (the country where the reservoir is located is Turkey) is salty. It is located in the Armenian Highlands. The lake began to be mentioned in ancient records. Modern study of the reservoir began only at the beginning of the nineteenth century.
The origin of Van Lake begins with a lava eruption. Around the reservoir are several (now extinct) volcanoes. In the Pleistocene era, they were still active. The Nemrut volcano lava flowing down from the mountain blocked the water flow in the Van basin. As a result, a new lake was formed, which got its name by the area in which it is located.
At the moment, the reservoir fills the deepest part of the Van depression. But there is a risk that the erosion of the Eastern Taurus may form a new flow due to the tributaries of the Tigris. In this case, the area of Lake Van may decrease or it will cease to exist at all.
Lake Van (Turkey) is located in Turkey, in Eastern Anatolia, in the west of the basin, with the name identical to the reservoir.The trench has a tectonic origin and is surrounded by mountain slopes: the Eastern Taurus, the Kurdish Mountains and the Aladagar Ridge.
Lake Van is the largest in Turkey. The reservoir is the 4th in the world not drying up drainage in size. The lake is located above the sea level at an altitude of 1648 meters. A pond of irregular shape, resembles a triangle. The greatest width of the lake is 119 kilometers, the average depth of the lake is 161.2 meters. The pond is divided into two parts by a small isthmus. The shores of the lake are mostly steep. The lake is fed by four small rivers and spring ice melting.
Flora and fauna
In Lake Van, there is only one species of fish, similar to the European bleak. The livestock belongs to the carp family, but looks a lot like herring. This fish lives quietly in fresh and salty water. It breeds in the mouths of streams and rivers flowing into Lake Van.
Due to the salt water in the lake there are few living microorganisms. Only a part was able to adapt to the conditions of life. Thanks to the lake water in the surroundings developed gardening and farming. Grows a lot of fruit trees. Of the animals in the area of the lake is a very rare breed of cats - Turkish van. The tips of his ears are apricot-colored. Turkish van swims well.
The reservoir area is one of the most disadvantaged areas in Turkey. In the locality is not developed industry. The Van Lake area is poorly connected with the rest of the country. Nevertheless, residents found classes for themselves:
- cattle breeding;
From the salt that is extracted from the reservoir, detergents are made. On the lake there is a ferry. She works daily. A small shipyard was built on the southern side of Lake Van. Increasingly, tourists come to the lake. Began reconstruction of attractions on the banks of the reservoir. The lake even has its own "Van monster", which is composed of legends.
Among the attractions of Lake Van is noteworthy El-Aman, a large caravanserai. He appeared in the fifteenth century. Nearby is a picturesque old cemetery and an ancient fortress. Directly on the pond there are many small islands. In the middle of the lake rises the island Akhtamar. In the tenth and eleventh centuries it was the Armenian royal residence. The island has preserved an amazing example of medieval architecture - the Church of the Holy Cross with unique frescoes.Near the lake has its own museum, which exhibited the royal tombs.
Lake Van, according to scientists, there is millions of years. The waters are very similar to the surface of the Dead Sea. The first inhabitants on the shores of the lake appeared in the Paleolithic era. The first state was Urartu. Due to the huge size of the lake, the locals call it the sea. In the lake host bacteria that create microbolites. They were found on the bottom in the ninety-first year.
The export of Turkish Wans from the country is prohibited. For violation of the law, a large fine is imposed. On one wall of the church, which stands on the island of Akhatamar, is depicted the image of drunk Noah, the very one who built the ark in his time.
Water from the lake can not be drunk, as it is too salty, but then things are well washed in it, which is what the locals use. Water quality has a beneficial effect on the dermis when bathing in the presence of certain skin diseases.
In recent decades, Lake Van is famous for rumors about the appearance of monsters in the waters (like Loch Nessky). Information about an unusual animal appeared relatively recently, in 1995. Scientists have not yet confirmed its presence in the waters.Cryptozoologists believe that a large living creature cannot live in a pond. But still the organization to study the "monster" was created and works on the banks of the reservoir.