Ivan Savvich Nikitin - interesting data and facts of life
A wonderful Russian poet lived during the time of Tsarist Russia in the nineteenth century in the difficult pre-reform period. This circumstance had a great influence on the development of his talent and on all his work. From early childhood he was familiar with the life of the common people and the serfs, full of deprivation and suffering. In all of his works, the powerlessness, hopelessness, need and hard work of people from lower classes, to which the overwhelmingly large part of the Russian population belonged, are fully reflected.
The poet sincerely sympathized with the representatives of these classes and treated them in accordance with Christian traditions, supporting those in need only with a kind word, but also providing them with real help. The main part of the writer's work is poetic landscape lyrics, which, among other things, contains a religious bias and has a philosophical orientation.In his creative style is the successor to the traditions established by Koltsov.
The poet left the merchant family
Ivan Savich Nikitin was born on October 3, 1824 in Voronezh, in a poor but fairly wealthy merchant family. His father was the owner of a small factory for the production of candles, which would be more correct to call a handicraft workshop. He had a shop in which he traded candles.
The shoemaker trained him
Literacy little Ivan mastered early. A neighbor who was a shoemaker helped him in this. Only by learning to add letters, Ivan began to compose his first poems.
Study in seminary
When Ivan was eight years old, his father sent him to a religious school. After graduating from college, he expressed a desire to be a priest and entered the theological seminary. Seminary played a large role in the formation of the poet, but he was not satisfied with the existing education system and the rules adopted there. Later he will write about it in the "Diaries of a Seminarist."
While studying at the seminary, Nikitin became seriously interested in poetry and composed himself a lot. Passion for literature opened up new horizons for him, he managed to break out of the bourgeois worldview and gain inner freedom.
The owner of the inn
Seminary Ivan Nikitin never finished.The heavy temper and drunkenness of his father eventually ended in ruin. Then his mother died. The circumstances forced Ivan to abandon his studies and take up the maintenance of the inn, which was bought instead of the sold plant. For more than ten years he has been constantly in communication with visiting people who represented different social groups and classes.
He had to do the dirty work, including sweeping the yard. Then a long time had to pay the accumulated debts. But in spite of everything, the budding poet did not abandon his enthusiasm for literature and continued to write poetry. He never found the support and approval of his father, who was a supporter of petty-bourgeois views.
For the first time, Ivan Nikitin decided to publish his poems in 1853. They were published in the newspaper "Gubernskie Vedomosti" published in Voronezh. Soon poems of patriotic content appeared on the pages of other publications, which was very relevant, since in those years there was the Crimean War. In 1856, the first collection of poems by Nikitin was published. The next collection is published in 1859.Critics put the work of Nikitin on the same level as Koltsov and saw in him the master of landscape and the singer of a difficult share of the common people.
In 1857, the poet completed the work on the poem "The Fist", which was very popular with readers and was recognized and praised by critics. Its main character, the tradesman Karp Lukich, was a ruined merchant, he lived at the expense of petty deception and could not get out of poverty. In the family, he was a real despot and a cold drinker. The hero of the poem strongly resembled the nature of Nikitin’s father’s character.
Opening Nikitin in Voronezh bookstore
In 1859, thanks to the assistance of friends, the poet takes a loan of three thousand rubles, as his own fees were not enough to realize his plan. With this money, he opens a bookstore in Voronezh. In this store a reading room was organized, which allowed him to become one of the main centers of culture in Voronezh.
Illness and death
In 1855, Ivan Nikitin became very ill, having caught a cold while bathing. The illness was prolonged and developed into consumption. In the spring of 1861, he again had a serious cold, which caused a sharp deterioration in his general health.The tuberculous process has accelerated significantly. The level of medicine of those years practically did not leave hopes for recovery. The poet died on October 16 of the same year at the age of only 37 years. He was buried in Voronezh, where the poet lived his whole short life.
The reflection of the poet's creativity in musical culture
His works are superb on music and have served as a source of inspiration for many Russian composers. Over Nikitin's poems over 60 songs and romances were composed, among which many became popular. There are songs that have become folk. Perhaps the most famous of them is the "Ukhar-merchant". Here, however, it should be noted that the text of the popular version of the song has undergone significant changes that affected the original semantic content.
Memory of the poet
- The streets in Voronezh, Lipetsk, and Novosibirsk are named after Ivan Nikitin.
- A monument to the poet was unveiled on Nikitinsky Square in Voronezh in 1911, the project of which was developed by sculptor I.A. Shuklina.
- In 1924, in Voronezh, in the house in which Ivan Nikitin lived since 1846, the Nikitin Literary-Memorial House-Museum was formed.
- The name of the poet named one of the gymnasiums of Voronezh.
- In the USSR, postage stamps depicting Nikitin were issued, and in 2011 the Russian post issued a circulation of postcards, which depict the above-mentioned monument to the poet in Voronezh.