Interesting facts from the life and biography of Gogol
This article will discuss the life of Gogol. This writer has created many immortal works that rightfully occupy a worthy place in the annals of world literature. Many rumors and legends are connected with his name, some of which Nikolai Vasilyevich spread about himself. He was a great inventor and mystifier, which, of course, was reflected in his work.
Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol, whose biography is examined in this article, was born in 1809, on March 20, in the settlement of Great Sorochintsy in the Poltava province. On the father’s side in the future writer’s family were church servants, but already the boy’s grandfather, Athanasius Demianovich, left a spiritual career and began working in the hetman’s office. It was he who subsequently added another, better known - Gogol to the surname Yanovsky received at birth. So the ancestor of Nikolai Vasilievich sought to emphasize his relationship with the well-known in Ukrainian history, Colonel Ostap Gogol, who lived in the 17th century.
Pope of the future writer - Vasily Afanasyevich Gogol-Yanovsky - was an exalted and dreamy man. This can be judged by the story of his marriage to the daughter of a local landowner, Kosyarovskaya Maria Ivanovna. As a thirteen-year-old teenager, Vasily Afanasyevich saw in a dream the Mother of God pointing him to a little unfamiliar girl as his future spouse. After some time, in the seven-month-old daughter of Kosyarovsky’s neighbors, the boy recognized the heroine of his dream. From an early age he tenderly cared for his chosen one and married Maria Ivanovna, barely 14 years old. The family of Gogol lived in great love and harmony. The writer's biography began in 1809, when the spouses finally had their first child, Nikolay. Parents tenderly treated the baby, in every possible way tried to protect him from any troubles and shocks.
Gogol's biography, a brief summary of which will be useful for everyone to know, began in truly greenhouse conditions. Dad and mom loved the baby and did not refuse him anything. Besides him, there were eleven children in the family, but most of them died at middle age. However, the greatest love, of course, enjoyed Nicholas.
Childhood writer spent in Vasilyevka, parental estate. Kibintsy was considered the cultural center of this region. This was the domain of DT. Troshchinsky, a former minister and a distant relative of Yanovsky-Gogol. He held the post of povatovogo Marshal (that is, was the county leader of the nobility), and Vasily Afanasyevich was registered with him secretary. Theatrical performances were often held in Kibitsy, in which the father of the future writer took an active part. Nicholas often attended rehearsals, was very proud of it, and at home, inspired by the work of his father, wrote good poems. However, the first literary experiments of Gogol were not preserved. And as a child, he drew well and even organized an exhibition of his paintings in his parents' estate.
Together with his younger brother Ivan in 1818, Nikolai Gogol was sent to the Poltava district school. The biography of a homely boy, accustomed to greenhouse conditions, followed a completely different scenario. His cozy childhood was rapidly ending. At the school, he was taught a very tough discipline, but Nikolai did not show any special zeal for the sciences.The first vacation ended in terrible tragedy - Brother Ivan died from an unknown illness. After his death, all the hopes of the parents were placed on Nicholas. He needed to get a better education, for which he was sent to study at the Nezhin Classical Gymnasium. The conditions here were very harsh: the children were raised daily at 5.30 am, and the classes lasted from 9.00 to 17.00. For the rest of the time, students were supposed to learn lessons and pray diligently.
However, the future writer was able to get used to the local order. Soon he had friends, well-known and respected people in the future: Nestor Kukolnik, Nikolai Prokopovich, Konstantin Bazili, Alexander Danilevsky. All of them, having matured, became famous writers. And this is not surprising! As high school students, they founded several handwritten journals: Meteor of Literature, Dawn of the North, Zvezda, and others. In addition, teenagers passionately fond of theater. And the creative biography of Gogol could well be different - many predicted the fate of a famous actor. However, the young man dreamed of public service and, after graduating from high school, resolutely went to St. Petersburg to make a career.
Together with his friend in the Danilevsky Gymnasium in 1828, Gogol went to the capital. Petersburg met the young people unwelcomingly, they constantly needed money and unsuccessfully tried to find a decent job. At this time, Nikolai Vasilyevich is trying to make a living from literary experiences. However, his first poem "Ganz Kuchelgarten" was not successful. In 1829, the writer began to serve in the Department of State Economy and Public Buildings of the Ministry of the Interior, then for almost a year he worked in the Department of Units under the authority of the famous poet V.I. Panaeva. A stay in the offices of various departments helped Nikolai Vasilievich to collect a wealth of material for future works. However, the public service has forever disappointed the writer. Fortunately, he was soon waiting for a truly dizzying success in the literary field.
In 1831, "Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka" were published. "This is real gaiety, sincere, unconstrained ..." - Pushkin said about this work. Now Gogol’s personality and biography have become interesting to the most famous people in Russia. His talent was readily acknowledged by all.Nikolai Vasilyevich was overjoyed and constantly wrote letters to his mother and sisters with a request to send him more material about Little Russian folk customs.
In 1836, the famous “St. Petersburg novel” by the writer, The Nose, was published. In this work, extremely bold for its time, it is ridiculed admiration for the rank in its smallest and sometimes disgusting manifestations. At the same time Gogol creates the work "Taras Bulba". Biography and creativity of the writer is inextricably linked with the sweet homeland - Ukraine. In Taras Bulba, Nikolai Vasilyevich tells about the heroic past of his country, about how representatives of the people (Cossacks) fearlessly defended their own independence from the Polish invaders.
How much trouble the author has delivered this play! Being a brilliant writer and playwright who had a lot of anticipation of his time, Nikolai Vasilievich could not convey to his contemporaries the meaning of his immortal work. The plot of the "Auditor" was presented to Gogol by Pushkin. Inspired by the great poet, the author wrote it for just a few months. In the fall of 1835, the first sketches appeared, and in 1836,On January 18, the first hearing of the play took place in the evening at Zhukovsky. April 19, the premiere of "The Auditor" on the stage of the Alexandria Theater. Nicholas I himself came to her along with his heir. It is said that after watching the emperor spoke: “Well, little piece! Everyone got it, but I got it more than anyone! ”However, Nikolai Vasilyevich was not amused. He, a convinced monarchist, was accused of revolutionary moods, undermining the foundations of society, and God knows what else. But he simply tried to ridicule the abuse of local officials, his goal was morality, and not at all politics. The distressed writer left the country and went on a long trip abroad.
An interesting biography of Gogol abroad deserves special attention. In total, the writer spent twelve years in "saving" journeys. In 1936, Nikolai Vasilievich did not limit himself to anything: at the beginning of the summer he settled in Germany, spent the autumn in Switzerland, and came to Paris for the winter. During this time, he strongly advanced in writing the novel "Dead Souls". The plot of the work suggested to the author all the same Pushkin. He also praised the first chapters of the novel, recognizing that Russia is, in fact, a very sad country.
In February 1837, Gogol, whose biography is interesting and instructive, moved to Rome.Here he learned about the death of Alexander Sergeevich. In desperation, Nikolai Vasilyevich decided that the “Dead Souls” is the “sacred testament” of the poet, which the light must see. In 1838, Zhukovsky arrived in Rome. Gogol gladly walked the streets of the city with the poet, painted local landscapes with him.
Return to Russia
In 1839, in September, the writer returned to Moscow. Now the publication of "Dead Souls" is devoted to the creative biography of Gogol. The summary of the work is already known to many friends of Nikolai Vasilievich. He read the individual chapters of the novel in the house of Aksakov, in Prokopovich and Zhukovsky. His audience was the closest circle of friends. All of them were delighted with the creation of Gogol. In 1842, in May, the first publication of Dead Souls was published. At first, reviews of the work were mostly positive, then the initiative was seized by detractors of Nikolai Vasilyevich. They accused the writer of slander, caricature, farce. A truly devastating article was written by N. A. Polevoy. However, Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol did not take part in this whole controversy. Biography of the writer again continued abroad.
Cause of the heart
Gogol was never married. Very little is known about his serious ties with women. Smirnova Alexandra Osipovna was his long-time and devoted friend. When she came to Rome, Nikolai Vasilyevich became her guide through the ancient city. In addition, there was a very lively correspondence between friends. However, the woman was married, so the relationship between her and the writer was only platonic. Another heartwave adorned the biography of Gogol. A brief history of his personal relationship with women says: once a writer decided to marry. He became interested in the young countess Anna Viliegorskaya and in the late 1940s made her an offer. The girl's parents were against this marriage, and the writer was refused. Nikolai Vasilyevich was greatly discouraged by this story, and since then he has not tried to arrange his personal life.
Work on the second volume
Before leaving, the author of "Dead Souls" decided to publish the first collection of his own writings. He, as always, needed money. However, he himself did not want to deal with this troublesome matter and turned over this matter to his friend, Prokopovich. In the summer of 1842 the writer was in Germany, and in the fall he moved to Rome.Here he worked on the second volume of Dead Souls. Almost the entire creative biography of Gogol is devoted to writing this novel. The most important thing he wanted to do at that moment was to show the image of an ideal citizen of Russia: smart, strong and principled. However, the work was promoted with great difficulty, and in early 1845 the writer had the first signs of a large-scale mental crisis.
The writer continued to write his novel, but became increasingly distracted by other matters. For example, he composed the “Revocation of the Examiner”, which radically changed all the old interpretation of the play. Then in 1847 in St. Petersburg were printed "Selected places from the correspondence with friends." In this book, Nikolai Vasilyevich tried to explain why the second volume of Dead Souls has not yet been written, and expressed doubt about the educational role of fiction.
A whole storm of public indignation struck the writer. "Selected Places ..." - the most controversial point, which marked the creative biography of Gogol. A brief history of the creation of this work suggests that it was written in the moment of the writer's spiritual turmoil, his desire to move away from previous positions and start a new life.
In general, the writer burned his writings repeatedly.This can be said to have been his bad habit. In 1829, he did this with his poem "Hans Kuchelgarten", and in 1840, with the Little Russian tragedy "Shaving Mustache", which Zhukovsky could not hit. At the beginning of 1845, the writer’s health deteriorated sharply, he constantly consulted with various medical celebrities and traveled to water resorts. He visited Dresden, Berlin, Halle, but he could not improve his health. The religious exaltation of the writer gradually increased. He often spoke with his spiritual father, Father Matthew. He believed that literary creativity distracts from the inner life and demanded that the writer renounce his divine gift. As a result, on February 11, 1852, Gogol's biography was marked by a fateful event. The most important creation of his life - the second volume of "Dead Souls" - they were mercilessly burned.
In April 1848, Gogol returned to Russia. Most of the time he spent in Moscow, sometimes he came to St. Petersburg and to his homeland, Ukraine. The writer read selected chapters from the second volume of "Dead Souls" to friends, again bathed in the rays of universal love and worship.Nikolai Vasilyevich came to the staging of "The Inspector General" at the Maly Theater and remains pleased with the performance. In January 1852, it became known that the novel was "completely finished." However, soon a new mental crisis marked the biography of Gogol. The main thing of his life - literary work - it seemed useless. He burned the second volume of "Dead Souls" and a few days later (February 21, 1852) died in Moscow. He was buried in the cemetery of the Holy Danilov Monastery, and in 1931 he was transferred to the Novodevichy cemetery.
Such is the biography of Gogol. Interesting facts from his life are largely related to his posthumous will. It is well known that he asked not to put a monument over his grave and not to bury it for several weeks, because sometimes the writer fell into a kind of lethargic sleep. Both wishes of the writer were violated. Gogol was buried a few days after his death, and in 1957 a marble bust of Nikolai Tomsky was installed at the burial site of Nikolai Vasilyevich.