How Germans were deported from Kaliningrad after the war
In 1946, Stalin signed a decree according to which it is necessary to relocate 12,000 families on a voluntary basis for permanent residence in the Kaliningrad Region. For three years, residents of 27 different regions of the RSFSR, the Union and autonomous republics arrived in the region, whose reliability was carefully monitored.
These were mainly migrants from Belarus, Pskov, Kalinin, Yaroslavl and Moscow regions
Thus, from 1945 to 1948 tens of thousands of Germans and Soviet citizens lived together in Kaliningrad. At that time, German schools, churches, and other public institutions operated in the city. On the other hand, because of the memory of a very recent war, the German population was subjected to looting and violence by the Soviet, which was manifested in forcible eviction from apartments, insults and coercion to perform work.
However, according to many researchers, the conditions of close living of two peoples in a small territory contributed to their cultural and universal rapprochement. The official policy also tried to help eradicate hostility between the Russians and the Germans, but this vector of interaction was soon completely rethought: a deportation of the Germans to Germany is being prepared.
The “peaceful ousting” of Germans by Soviet citizens did not produce effective fruits, and by 1947 there were more than 100,000 Germans in the USSR. “The non-working German population ... does not receive food supply, as a result of which it is in an extremely exhausted condition. As a result of this situation, a sharp increase in criminal crime (theft of food, robbery, and even murder) has recently been observed among the German population, and in the first quarter of 1947, there were cases of cannibalism, which were registered in the region ... 12.
While engaging in cannibalism, individual Germans not only eat the meat of corpses, but also kill their children and relatives. There are 4 cases of murder for the purpose of cannibalism, ”the Kaliningrad authorities reported.
In order to liberate Kaliningrad from the Germans, permission was issued to return to their homeland, but not all Germans were able or willing to use it. Colonel-General Serov spoke about the measures taken: “The presence of the German population in the region has a corrupting effect on the unstable part of not only the civilian Soviet population, but also military personnel of a large number of the Soviet army and navy located in the region and contributes to the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. The introduction of Germans into the life of the Soviet people through their rather wide use as low-paid or generally free servants contributes to the development of espionage ... ”. Serov raised the question of the forced relocation of the Germans to the territory of the Soviet occupation of Germany.
After that, from 1947 to 1948 about 105,000 Germans and Prussian Lithuanians from the former East Prussia were resettled to Germany from Germany. It was alleged that organized by the Germans during the Second World Relocation, which, in particular, led to the Holocaust, justify this deportation. The resettlement took place almost without victims, which was due to the high degree of its organization - the deportees were given dry rations, allowed to take a large amount of cargo with them and treated them in good faith.Many thank-you letters from the Germans, written by them before the resettlement, are also known: “We say goodbye to the Soviet Union with big thanks”.
So on the territory that was once called East Prussia, Russians and Belarusians, Ukrainians, and former residents of other union republics began to live. After the war, the Kaliningrad region began to militarize rapidly, becoming a kind of "shield" of the USSR on the western borders. With the collapse of the USSR, Kaliningrad turned into an enclave of the Russian Federation, and to this day it remembers its German past.