Herpetic stomatitis in children and adults: treatment
Herpetic stomatitis is an extremely widespread disease, especially when it comes to small children. According to statistics, this disease is one of the most common in modern pediatrics and dentistry. It is therefore not surprising that many people are interested in information about the disease.
So what is the herpetic stomatitis? How dangerous can a disease be? What methods of treatment does modern medicine offer?
What is a disease?
Today, many people are interested in questions about this disease. What is herpetic stomatitis? How to treat this disease? What is the risk of infection?
Herpetic stomatitis is a viral disease. This is one of the most common diseases of the oral cavity. It is especially common in young children, whose immune system is at the stage of formation.However, cases of stomatitis in adults should also not be considered a rarity.
The causes of herpetic stomatitis
There is only one reason for this disease - infection of the body with the herpes simplex virus. According to the latest statistical research, approximately 90% of the world's population are carriers of this infection. From this it follows that the probability of infection is extremely high.
Penetrating into the human body, the virus, as a rule, affects the cells of the mucous membranes and skin. Most often, the “victims” of the infection are tissues of the oral cavity. But it should be noted that it is impossible to recover from the disease. Even after the disappearance of the main symptoms, the virus remains in the body and can eventually manifest itself again.
How is infection transmitted? In most cases, the virus passes from person to person through airborne droplets. On the other hand, intrauterine infection is possible, as well as transmission during labor. Possible and sexual transmission.
Many people are interested in questions about whether herpetic stomatitis is contagious. Yes, this disease is extremely contagious.You can catch the virus while communicating with an infected person. Household transmission is also possible, for example, when sharing mugs, toothbrushes, towels, etc.
Who is at risk?
Today, many people face the diagnosis of herpetic stomatitis. The treatment of this disease is a topical issue. However, you should first deal with some additional information.
Herpes simplex virus does not always manifest itself, since its activity is controlled by the immune system of the human body. Therefore, at risk are, first of all, people with a weakened immune system.
In addition, outbreaks of herpetic stomatitis can occur against the background of some other cold, particularly flu.
The main symptoms of herpetic stomatitis
What does herpetic stomatitis look like in a child? Many parents are interested in this issue. To begin with, it should be noted that the incubation period for such a disease is 2-14 days. Then the first symptoms begin to appear.
At first, the child becomes restless. He sleeps badly, often cries and wakes up at night, often refuses to eat or drink. In some cases, nausea may occur, accompanied by regurgitation or vomiting.An increase in the cervical and submaxillary lymph nodes, the pressure on which is accompanied by painful sensations, can be noticed.
Further, the general symptoms of an infectious disease begin to appear. Body temperature rises to 38, less than 40 degrees. Older children complain of body aches, chills, constant weakness and drowsiness, increased fatigue, etc.
In some cases, catarrhal symptoms join the main signs. In particular, in children, the disease is often accompanied by a runny nose, nasal congestion, less cough, acute gingivitis, inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyes, etc.
Herpetic stomatitis in children (photo confirms) is also characterized by other symptoms. In particular, a careful examination of the mouth can cause redness and redness of the gums, which can even bleed.
First, a single eruption appears on the mucous membrane of the mouth. In appearance, they resemble small bubbles or vesicles with thin walls and transparent contents. Their diameter, as a rule, does not exceed 2–3 millimeters. Rashes can increase in size, merge with the edges, forming fairly large lesions.Then the vesicles begin to open - in their place small ulcers are formed, covered with white bloom (in medicine they are called aphthae).
In most cases, the rash covers the mucous membrane of the cheeks, as well as the gums, palate and back of the tongue. However, rashes can also appear on the lips and skin around them. The formation of vesicles is accompanied by severe pain. Children refuse to eat and drink, constantly crying and complaining of discomfort. Sometimes a rash spreads to the mucous membrane of the larynx, which causes a sore throat and symptoms similar to angina.
Herpetic stomatitis in a child is often characterized by a wavy course. The appearance of the rash and fever are replaced by a short stable period, after which the temperature rises again, and the mucous membrane of the mouth is covered with new bubbles.
Depending on the severity of the disease and the quality of the treatment provided, the areas of erosion close after 7–14 days. In more severe cases, the accession of a bacterial infection is possible, which greatly complicates the situation. Herpetic stomatitis in adults looks about the same.
Modern diagnostic methods
It is necessary to immediately consult a doctor if you suspect acute herpetic stomatitis in your child or yourself. The treatment in this case can be prescribed only by a specialist and only after a preliminary medical examination.
To begin with, the doctor will try to collect a full history - he needs information about whether the patient has suffered from a similar disease in the past, when and how symptoms appeared, what treatment methods were used, etc. As a rule, a visual examination of the oral cavity is enough suspect herpetic stomatitis.
However, acute herpetic stomatitis in children and adults requires some additional research. After all, inflammation may be caused by another infection or even result from an allergic reaction. To confirm the diagnosis, blood or saliva can be taken for analysis. Sometimes scraping from the oral mucosa is carried out. In the laboratory, collected samples are amenable to serotological, cytological and virological studies.
If outbreaks of stomatitis occur frequently, additional tests are needed to help determine the cause of the relapse and, accordingly, eliminate it.
Herpetic stomatitis in children: treatment
In fact, the treatment of this disease in children and adults may differ, because, as you know, young patients can take far from all drugs, especially if we are talking about an infant. In severe cases, the child may require hospitalization, although most often the treatment is carried out at home.
At the initial stages, doctors recommend antiviral drugs - these are mainly ointments and gels for external use. “Acyclovir” is considered effective, although with constant drug relapses it is necessary to change it from time to time, since the herpes virus tends to develop resistance to drugs.
To eliminate the pain, experts recommend painkillers, in particular, products containing lidocaine. Such drugs are available in the form of solutions and ointments, and in the form of aerosols. A prerequisite is bed rest, abundant drinking and good nutrition - this ensures a quick recovery and prevents dehydration. Naturally, a sick child needs a special diet - for the time being it is necessary to exclude coarse food, too cold and hot dishes from the diet.Do not forget that salt and spices irritate the mucous membrane, so you should not use them when cooking.
It is this kind of therapy that requires herpetic stomatitis in children. Treatment should also include bracing procedures. And still very important is the hygiene of the oral cavity, because there is a possibility of the penetration of bacteria and suppuration of ulcers. If we are talking about a small child, then from time to time you need to drink it with boiled water or decoction of chamomile. Adult children can rinse their mouth after each meal.
How is stomatitis treated in adults?
Herpetic stomatitis in adults is considered to be quite frequent today. Treatment in this case also includes taking antiviral drugs. In order to cleanse the body of toxic products, prescribe sodium salicylate. It is also necessary to take antihistamine drugs, for example, Tavegila, Suprastin or Dimedrol - this helps relieve puffiness and reduce discomfort.
For the treatment of the mucous membrane, various wound-healing and antibacterial ointments are used, including tebrofen and florenal.Also, experts recommend rinsing your mouth with antiseptics - for these purposes a weak solution of potassium permanganate, furatsilina or hydrogen peroxide is suitable. Also, the oral cavity can be treated with sea buckthorn oil, a solution of vitamin A or E, since these funds significantly accelerate the healing of wounds and facilitate the patient's condition.
In some cases, patients require systemic antiviral therapy, which includes taking immunomodulatory agents, as well as vitamin complexes. Do not forget about oral hygiene.
Herpetic stomatitis in children. Komarovsky recommends ...
To date, the famous doctor's advice is very popular with young mothers. So what does he recommend to treat herpetic stomatitis in children?
Komarovsky in this case adheres to general medical tactics. To eliminate the symptoms of viral stomatitis it is necessary to use antiviral drugs. In order to relieve pain, you can wipe the oral mucosa with lidocaine solution. On the other hand, the doctor does not recommend using this tool too often, as it may be addictive.
Also you should not lubricate the mucous membrane with coloring substances (blue, green paint, etc.). The fact is that the paint hides the main symptoms of the disease, so the attending physician can easily lose sight of any specific signs.
In addition, the doctor strongly recommends adhering to the rules of hygiene. If we are talking about newborn babies, the mother should carefully monitor the cleanliness of the breasts, as well as the condition of toys, pacifiers and other items, because little kids love to taste everything. It is important to avoid gaps in personal hygiene and the eldest child. Brushing your teeth during stomatitis can turn into a real torture. However, oral hygiene is extremely important, since open sores often become the gateway to a bacterial and fungal infection.
Recurrent form of herpetic stomatitis
In addition to acute stomatitis, modern medicine knows the chronic, recurrent form of the disease. This means that in some patients, outbreaks of stomatitis occur regularly. In the mild form of the disease, a rash and sores in the mouth appear no more than 1-2 times a year.With moderate illness, outbreaks are observed about 2–4 times a year. Severe recurrent stomatitis is accompanied by regular repetitions (more than 4 times a year), and the symptoms in this case are really severe.
The clinical picture during exacerbations looks approximately the same - a characteristic blistering rash appears on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity and lips. At the site of rash soon ulcers form. But the body temperature, as a rule, remains normal - only occasionally there are slight jumps. Outside of exacerbations, the patient's state of health remains satisfactory - this is what recurrent herpetic stomatitis looks like.
Treatment in the period of exacerbation of stomatitis looks the same as in the acute form of the disease. As for the causes of relapses, they are associated with a weakened immune defense. For example, an exacerbation may be caused by severe hypothermia, overheating, prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation, as well as beriberi, depletion of the body, emotional overstrain, etc.
Are complications possible?
In fact, acute herpetic stomatitis can hardly be considered a dangerous disease for humans. With proper treatment, the main symptoms disappear after only 1-2 weeks.Nevertheless, complications with a similar disease are still possible, especially if we are talking about patients with a weakened immune system or the wrong therapy.
The most common complication is herpetic conjunctivitis, as the infection can easily get from the mucous membrane of the mouth to the eyes. A more serious disease is keratoconjunctivitis, which is accompanied by damage to the conjunctiva, as well as the mucous membrane of the eyelid. The disease is characterized by the appearance of a rash, areas of erosion and ulceration, which is extremely dangerous, as it can lead to reduced vision, and sometimes complete blindness. By the way, such complications are most often diagnosed in children under the age of five years.
Sometimes the herpes virus spreads throughout the body. Such a generalization of infection is extremely dangerous, since any organ can be the target of infection. Often the herpes virus affects the brain tissue, which leads to the development of encephalitis.
That is why in no case can you ignore this disease, even if it seems frivolous.
Prevention of stomatitis in children and adults
Herpetic stomatitis is an extremely common phenomenon. And, unfortunately, today there is no vaccine that would be able to fully protect a person from such a disease. And, given the number of carriers of infection, to prevent infection is also almost impossible.
However, there are some recommended precautions. For example, experts recommend, whenever possible, avoid sharing dishes, toys, and other household items with people who have herpes at the acute stage. Necessary are also measures to strengthen the immune system, which include hardening, proper nutrition, physical activity, periodic intake of vitamin complexes, etc.