Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract: causes, symptoms, treatment, diet and prevention. Diseases of the digestive tract in children
According to statistics, recently the work disorders and pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract occupy a leading place among other diseases. Especially they are exposed to residents of large cities. The reason for this - the wrong way of life and constant stress. Therefore, by the age of 30 every fourth person suffers from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Characteristics of the digestive system
It's no secret that the digestive tract plays a very important role in the vital activity of the body. With it, we get vitamins, trace elements, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, fiber, and useful acids. Some of them serve as a building material for cells, provide us with energy. Other substances contribute to the smooth functioning of organs and systems.Therefore, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract can not only disrupt the normal rhythm of life of a person, affecting his health, but in some cases lead to death.
The gastrointestinal tract consists of the following components: the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and intestines, which include thin, thick, and straight sections. The main functions of all these organs are: the breakdown of food, the removal of its residues from the body, the production of beneficial enzymes that contribute to the proper digestion and absorption of the necessary substances. Without the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, a person feels discomfort, he feels unwell, which, due to lack of treatment, may become chronic.
Causes of disease
There are a lot of them and most of them belong to the wrong way of life. The main causes of gastrointestinal diseases are as follows:
- Unbalanced nutrition: regular diets, overeating, harmful snacks and chewing on the go, regular visits to fast-food outlets, lack of healthy fiber, instead predominance of fats and hard-to-absorb carbohydrates in animals.
- Ecology: low quality of drinking water, the presence of a large amount of nitrates and pesticides in vegetables, antibiotics and preservatives in meat products.
Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and liver also provoke bad habits - alcoholism and smoking. Drugs, as well as parasitic infections, bacterial pathogens, endocrine disruption, work in a production with unhealthy conditions, lack of basic sanitary standards, lack of personal hygiene, improper day regimen, neurosis and stress can also lead to pathologies.
Acute and chronic gastrointestinal diseases have a number of signs that make it easy to determine if you have problems with this part of the body. These symptoms include:
- Abdominal pain.With ulcers, it is sharp, with frequent localization, in the case of appendicitis and hernia - strong, throbbing, when a person has colic - cramping.
- Heartburn.Painful sensations for it are characteristic of an ulcer, increased - with a hernia.
- Belching.Sour talks about the violation of digestion, with the smell of rotten eggs - about the pathological delay of food in the stomach and intestines.
Symptoms also include vomiting and nausea, which are more common in chronic diseases. For example, for gastritis.If vomiting contains bleeding and clots, it may be an open ulcer or stomach cancer. If a patient regularly suffers from flatulence, he may be diagnosed with dysbiosis, secretory pancreatic insufficiency, or complete or partial intestinal obstruction.
Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract have less pronounced symptoms that indicate damage to the digestive system: bad breath, feeling of bitterness, white on the tongue, poor appetite (especially aversion to meat products), constant thirst, increased salivation, a sharp decrease in body weight, development of anemia, pallor, dizziness, weakness, feeling of heaviness in the abdomen, prolonged upset of the stool (constipation or diarrhea), as well as the appearance of bloody discharges in feces.
These symptoms themselves are not dangerous, but can disrupt the normal rhythm of life, affect its quality, and also indicate the development of pathology. Therefore, the sooner you go to a doctor, the faster and easier the treatment will be, the therapy will work effectively and the result will be complete healing.If the disease is not detected at an early stage and is not cured, it can cause serious complications or it will regularly worsen until the end of life.
They are characteristic of a larger percentage of patients who seek medical care. First, it is gastritis, the development of which is provoked by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, as well as nutritional errors, the presence of bad habits and constant neurosis. In gastritis, the mucous membrane of the gastric walls suffers, due to which a person feels pain, suffers from indigestion. Secondly, it is a gastric and duodenal ulcer. For her, among other things, characterized by pain, and more - heartburn, problems with the assimilation of food. An ulcer is formed when the organs of the gastrointestinal tract are damaged and the integrity of the tissues is disturbed, and this can lead to life-threatening complications.
The third, most common gastrointestinal disease, is colitis. Occurs under the influence of pathogenic bacteria, against the background of infection. Localized in the intestinal mucosa and is inflammatory. Nonspecific colitis causes ulcerative lesions that cause peritonitis, intestinal bleeding, malignant tumors and obstruction.
Their list is huge.What diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are most common among patients? First of all, it is pancreatitis and dysbacteriosis. The first relates to inflammatory diseases of the pancreas, which is characterized by vomiting, nausea, indigestion and pain. The second is the consequences of a change in the natural state of the intestinal microflora, as a result of which its full functioning is disrupted, problems arise with the digestibility of food, its normal elimination from the body.
The most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract include such illnesses: cholecystitis - inflammation of the gallbladder, which is accompanied by bitterness in the mouth, nausea, pain, problems with the stool and dyspeptic symptoms, cirrhosis of the liver - a deadly disease that causes large-scale damage to the cells of the organ. Digestive diseases are also called hemorrhoids and appendicitis.
The clinical picture in children
Unfortunately, recently there has been an increase in the incidence of digestive pathologies in babies. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in children occur due to several factors: poor ecology, heredity and poor diet.As for the latter, it manifests itself in the uncontrolled use by minors of carbonated drinks, fast food products, sweets, which contain emulsifiers, dyes and preservatives. Doctors say that intestinal diseases in babies are most often manifested in 5-6 and 9-11 years. The clinical picture is as follows: the baby has a stomach ache, he is sick or tearing, he complains of diarrhea or constipation.
Even babies are not immune from ailments. Often they suffer from so-called colic. The reason - artificial feeding. Therefore, doctors do not get tired to insist that breast milk is the best food for the youngest children. It not only has a beneficial effect on the stomach, but also helps strengthen the immune system. An organism that receives a sufficient amount of natural vitamins, microelements and antibodies from mother's milk can also provide adequate resistance to various bacteria that cause GST diseases.
Intestinal diseases in babies
Acute intestinal diseases of babies belong to a separate group of gastrointestinal diseases. These are salmonellosis and dysentery, which cause intoxication, dehydration and various dyspeptic disorders.Such symptoms are very dangerous and require immediate hospitalization. Interestingly, it is children who most often get sick with intestinal infections. This is due to the fact that in babies the protective mechanisms of the body work still imperfectly. The reasons are also children’s neglect of sanitary norms and physiological features of their gastrointestinal tract.
Acute infectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract can provoke a delay in physical development, “kill” immunity and cause a number of serious complications and irreversible consequences. They are usually accompanied by a complete lack of appetite, fever, painful sensations in the abdomen, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. The kid complains of weakness and fatigue, he is slowed down, sluggish. Such a child needs medical help: an antibacterial therapy is prescribed by a pediatric gastroenterologist.
First you need to contact a specialist doctor - a gastroenterologist. Only after passing the necessary tests and examinations, he will make an accurate diagnosis. Treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, its duration and intensity will depend on the specific disease, the form and stage of its development, the degree of neglect, the general condition of the patient.Usually used drug therapy, but in some cases urgently require surgical intervention.
Tactics are selected individually. Usually prescribe such drugs:
- Antacids - neutralize gastric juice.
- Alginates - normalize acidity.
- Prokinetic - stimulate GI motility.
- Antispasmodics - relieve smooth muscle spasms.
- Antibiotics and probiotics.
- Enterosorbents - against intoxication.
- Antimicrobial agents.
- Enzymatic digestive preparations, etc.
In combination with drug treatment and use of traditional medicine: infusions and decoctions of medicinal plants. For example, immortelle, nettle, yarrow, lemon balm. They are very effective, only you can take them under the supervision of your doctor.
Diet for gastrointestinal diseases
All diseases in this series are so different that specific recommendations can be given only after a detailed study of the diagnosis. The diet is subject to adjustment in each individual case. But there are general requirements for the patient's diet. First, you need to eat often - 6 times a day. Portions should not be large, best of all, if the dish is rare or shredded.So you will not overload the stomach and intestines. Secondly, the patient needs to drink 2 liters of water per day.
Diet for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract must be benign. It is necessary to give preference to soufflé, mashed potatoes, omelettes, low-fat fish and meat broths. Fried, smoked, canned, pickled, salted - under strict prohibition. It is also necessary to abandon the various sauces, convenience foods, seasonings and spices. Vegetables that cause fermentation processes should also be excluded. It's all beans, corn, peas, cabbage, turnip and radish. Other vegetables must be boiled or stewed thoroughly. Food should be fresh and easy to digest. The more fiber in the diet and less refined food, the better the digestive tract will work.
In the first place - it is all the same balanced and proper nutrition. Prevention of gastrointestinal diseases includes the following measures: observance of the rules of sanitary cooking and personal hygiene This way you protect yourself and your family from intestinal infections. Eat only healthy foods: vegetables, fruits, herbs, low-fat dairy products, fish and meat.Ensure that proteins, fats and carbohydrates are in the right proportion in your daily diet.
Diseases of the digestive tract are very "love" of passive people. Therefore, try to move more, play sports, spend a lot of time in the fresh air. An excellent option would be swimming, easy running, aerobics and even walking. Give up bad habits - they provoke a malfunction of the intestines and stomach. Try to protect yourself from stress, do not be particularly nervous, take natural soothing: valerian or motherwort. When the first alarming symptoms occur, immediately consult a doctor - this will prevent the progression of the disease and prevent its transition to a chronic form, and, of course, you will achieve complete recovery.