Broccoli: growing and care. Broccoli varieties
Broccoli is an annual plant belonging to the Cabbage family. It belongs to the variety. The homeland of this plant is the Eastern Mediterranean and Asia Minor.
Many are interested in how broccoli grows. The plant has a small height (60 cm). At the top of the stem are many flower stalks, which are crowned with dense groups of small buds. They gather in a loose head. Externally, the plant is very similar to cauliflower cabbage, but differs from it in less dense inflorescences and smaller leaves that have a corrugated surface. After removal from the central stem of the head, new side shoots are formed. This significantly increases the yield of the plant.
This is one of the oldest vegetable crops. Growing broccoli in the open ground was made in ancient Rome. It was the Romans who brought it to Byzantium, from where it spread to other countries. Today it is a widespread and very popular culture throughout the world.
Types of broccoli
Currently, two types of broccoli are common. One of them, more familiar to us, is called a kalabrez. This species has a hard head made of dense inflorescences located on a thick stalk.
The second type is Italian or asparagus broccoli. It is formed from a variety of stems with small heads. Eat this cabbage using stems, which taste is very similar to asparagus.
Today in the world there are more than two hundred varieties of this culture. In our country, five varieties and hybrids are included in the State Register.
- Tone- early ripe grade. It forms medium-density dark green buds. Differs amicable maturation and active regrowth of the side heads.
- Linda- mid-season variety. It features large (up to 500 g) central heads of a dark green color. After cutting them, kicks up to six side heads of average size.
- Arcadia- mid-season hybrid. This is quite a powerful plant that has large gray-green heads, well developed at fairly low temperatures.
- Monterey- srednepozdniy hybrid forms a central head, painted in dark green color, very large.Its weight is about 1.9 kg, there are no side shoots.
- Vitamin- mid-season variety. Keeps up in ninety days. On the side shoots of the head reach five centimeters in diameter. The central head - 130-250 grams.
Broccoli, the cultivation of which is not difficult, nutritionally superior to many vegetables. The composition of this plant includes up to 5.9% of vegetable protein - it is almost twice as much as in cauliflower. According to the content of lysine, tryptophan, isoleucine and other essential amino acids, broccoli protein can be compared to chicken egg or beef protein, and methionine and choline prevent cholesterol accumulation.
Nowadays, many gardeners are interested in broccoli. Growing this cabbage is not at all difficult. With minimal physical effort, you can get the most valuable product. Broccoli contains calcium and potassium, phosphorus and sodium, iron and magnesium, a huge amount of fiber. Few people know that this vegetable contains almost two and a half times more vitamin C than citrus, and broccoli is second only to asparagus in the amount of anti-ulcer vitamin U.
Recent studies by scientists have revealed the presence of sulforaphane in young stems - a substance with a powerful antibacterial effect; in addition, it contributes to the cure of a stomach ulcer and is a prophylactic agent for a number of oncological diseases.
The beneficial properties of broccoli are widely used in the diet of people with diseases of the heart and blood vessels, it is included in the diet of those who want to lose weight, as it ideally combines high nutritional value with low calorie content.
Perhaps, having read this article, someone decides to plant broccoli on his plot. Plant cultivation should begin with the autumn soil preparation. First, you should dig up the entire fruiting layer with the addition of mineral and organic fertilizers. Broccoli need large amounts of phosphorus and nitrogen, especially during the formation of heads. In the spring, before planting, seedlings are freed from weeds and carefully treated with ammonium nitrate.
Growing broccoli in the open field will be more efficient if you use pre-grown seedlings. It is planted at the age of 45 days.Usually this work is carried out from the beginning of May until the end of June. In this case, the harvest can be obtained from mid-July until late autumn. If desired, broccoli seeds are planted directly in the ground, but then it will be necessary to carry out thinning.
As with any crop, broccoli seeds are soaked before sowing. For this purpose, wet gauze folded in several layers is used.
Seeds of hybrids (F1), as a rule, go on sale fully treated with all necessary preparations against plant diseases and against pests. They are fully prepared for sowing, so they are sown dry or treated with growth stimulants.
The situation is more complicatedvarietal seeds, especially those that are collected in the garden on their own. It is necessary to process them, since they are capable of transmitting many fungal (white and root rot, fusarium wilt) and viral diseases of plants.
In the fight against them, a significant effect is obtained by keeping seeds in an immunocytophyte solution (1 tablet per 100 ml of water). Seeds should be in solution from 3 to 12 hours.
In a specially prepared container (or plastic cups) seeds are sown to a depth of 1 cm.Broccoli seedlings lure is needed - usually it is fertilizer for vegetables containing molybdenum and boron.
The seedling is ready for planting in the ground in 30 days, when 4-5 leaves will appear on it. This should be done at the end of April. Before planting it is necessary to moisten the bed well.
Seedlings cover with non-woven material or film. It maintains frosts up to -7 degrees. Covering material is needed until the young shoots are mature. It will protect planting from cruciferous flea.
On the plot for broccoli, you need to mark the wells at a distance of 50 x 50, a little less. Place several seeds in each well and water them well. From seedlings leave the best. With this method, the crop can be harvested in August and September.
Every year this vegetable is becoming more and more popular with Russian gardeners, since growing this cabbage in the middle lane is quite simple.
Especially good broccoli grows on the site, where before it grew tomatoes, beans, onions or pumpkin. Prefers moist loamy soils enriched with humus.
The optimum temperature for growth is from +16 to +25 ° С.Her farming is similar to cauliflower. When planting seedlings need to be watered well - all types of cabbage love water. Later, after the formation of the heads, watering can be limited. Not all gardeners properly prepare land for broccoli. Landing will be in this case more effective if you bring in a handful of humus and ashes into each well and mix them with the ground.
After planting and watering the seedlings, it is desirable to mulch the ground, this will facilitate further care of the plant. Under a layer of mulch, the earth retains moisture longer and does not overheat - broccoli does not like heat very much. In addition, mulching will save you from weeds.
We have already mentioned that from the autumn the site should be filled with organic and mineral fertilizers. As broccoli grows better on slightly alkaline and neutral soils, it is very responsive to liming. It is also held in the fall. Nitrogen fertilizers are applied to the soil in the spring before planting.
Watering and feeding
Watering broccoli should be abundant and regular, but this does not mean that the soil should be poured without measure. On hot days, broccoli can be sprayed with water.
Cabbage requires additional feeding, but they must be dosed. The first time it is necessary to make a diluted mullein (200 g per ten liters of water), to this composition add 1 tsp. urea, when the seedlings planted in the ground, take root and begin to grow. If you decide to grow broccoli from seed, then it can be fed twenty days after the first shoots.
The second time the plant is fed with nitrate. This is done three weeks after the first feeding. Many experienced gardeners believe that cabbage cannot be grown without saltpeter. It is used in early summer. Most often, nitrate is measured with a matchbox. It will take one full box of ten liters of water.
In late summer, when feeding, you should not get involved in a large amount of nitrogen. The quality of the harvest may be affected by the lack of potash and phosphate fertilizers. It is very convenient to use balanced ready-made fertilizers for cabbage. Today you can buy them in specialized stores.
We hope that you have fulfilled all the recommendations and have grown excellent cabbage. Now the next question arises: when to cut broccoli? The central heads are removed before blooming, when their diameter reaches from 8-25 cm (depending on the variety) and weight is about 500 g.You should know that the head is cut off with a stem, about 20 cm long. It is also used in cooking. A little secret: when cutting broccoli in the early morning hours, during the dew, then the plant will not wilt for a long time.
After the collection of central heads is completed, the plant expels the lateral shoots from the axillary buds. On their tops grow heads weighing up to 200 g and 6 cm in diameter. This method significantly increases the yield of broccoli. Store products need in the refrigerator for no more than seven days, as over time the cabbage begins to turn yellow.
Next time on this site, broccoli can be planted in four years. With proper adherence to agricultural technology, cabbage is very rare, it requires minimal chemical treatment.
What is sick plant, how to help him
In this section, we will tell you which broccoli diseases are most common.
Black leg is a disease that is especially dangerous for tender cabbage seedlings. To prevent disease, do not plant seedlings on the site where radishes, turnips, radishes, as well as other cabbage varieties grew.
Slugs are another nuisance that traps broccoli.Fight with it will help the egg shell. It should be carefully crumbled and poured around the plants - for slugs, it is as dangerous as glass.
Wonderful little flowers - marigolds, which should be planted next to the broccoli growing area, will help get rid of caterpillars, whiteflies, cabbage and the like. Pests do not tolerate their smell.
Cruciferous flea are dangerous enemies of all types of cabbage. Broccoli can be sprinkled with allspice, ash, tobacco. True, with a very hot spring, these funds do not always help. In this case, cover the plant with a covering material until it is strong.