Biography of the prophet mohammed briefly
This article presents the biography of the Prophet Mohammed - the most important figure in the Muslim world. It was to him that Allah passed the Koran - the Holy Scripture.
The biography of the Prophet Muhammad begins around AD 570. O., when he was born. It happened in Saudi Arabia (Mecca), in the Quraish tribe (clan of Hashim). Abdullah, the father of Mohammed, died before his birth. And the mother of the prophet Muhammad, Amina, departed to another world when he was only 6 years old. She was the daughter of the leader of the Zurkh clan of the local Quraysh tribe. One day, the mother of the Prophet Muhammad decided to go to Medina with her son in order to visit the grave of Abdullah and her relatives. After staying here for about a month, they drove back to Mecca. Amina became seriously ill on the way and died in the village of al-Abwa. This happened around the year 577. Thus, Mohammed was left an orphan.
Childhood of the future prophet
The future prophet was first brought up by Abd al-Muttalib, his grandfather, of exceptional piety by man.Then the upbringing was continued by the merchant Abu Talib, uncle of Muhammad. The Arabs at that time were inveterate pagans. However, among them stood out some adherents of monotheism (for example, Abd al-Muttalib). The main part of the Arabs lived in the territories that belonged to them originally, nomadic life. Few cities were. Of the main ones, there are Mecca, Taif and Yathrib.
Mohammed becomes famous
The Prophet from his youth was distinguished by exceptional piety and piety. He, like his grandfather, believed in one God. Mohammed first passed the herds and then began to participate in the trade affairs of Abu Talib, his uncle. Gradually, Muhammad became famous. People loved him and gave him the nickname al-Amin (which means "trustworthy"). That was the name of the Prophet Mohammed as a sign of respect for piety, prudence, justice and honesty.
Muhammad's marriage to Khadija, children of the prophet
Later, Mohammed led the trade affairs of a rich widow named Khadija. She offered him some time later to marry with her. The couple lived a happy life, despite the significant difference in age. They had six children.From Khadija were all the children of the Prophet Mohammed, except Ibrahim, who was born after her death. In those days, Arabs had polygamy, but Muhammad remained faithful to his spouse. Other wives of the Prophet Muhammad appeared to him only after the death of Khadija. It also says a lot about him as an honest person. The children of the Prophet Mohammed had the following names: his sons - Ibrahim, Abdullah, Kasim; daughters - Ummukulsum, Fatima, Rukiya, Zainab.
Prayers in the mountains, the first revelation of Gabriel
Muhammad, as is his custom, retired to the mountains surrounding Mecca and remained isolated there for a long time. His recluse sometimes lasted several days. The cave of Mount Hira, towering majestically over Mecca, he especially liked. It was here that the prophet Muhammad received the first revelation. A photo of the cave is presented below.
In one of his visits, which took place in 610, when Muhammad was about 40 years old, an amazing event happened to him that completely changed his life. In a vision surging suddenly, the angel Gabriel (Jabrail) appeared before him. He pointed to the words that came from outside, and ordered Muhammad to pronounce them.He resisted, saying that he was illiterate, so he could not read them. However, the angel insisted, and suddenly the prophet opened the meaning of words. The angel commanded him to learn them and pass them on to the rest of the people.
This is how the first revelation of the book, known today as the Quran (from the Arabic word "reading"), came about. This night, full of events, fell on the 27th of Ramadan and became known as Laylat al-Qadr. It is the most important event for believers, which marks the story of the Prophet Muhammad. From now on his life no longer belonged to him. She was placed in the care of God, in the service to which he spent the rest of his days, proclaiming his messages everywhere.
The prophet, receiving revelations, did not always see the angel Jabrail, and when this happened, he appeared in different guises. Sometimes Jabrail appeared before a prophet in human form, which eclipsed the horizon. Sometimes Mohammed could only catch his gaze on himself. The Prophet heard at times only a voice speaking to him. Mohammed sometimes received revelations in a state of deep immersion in prayer. However, in other cases, words appeared completely "arbitrarily"when, for example, the prophet was engaged in daily activities, went for a walk or listened to a meaningful conversation. Muhammad avoided public sermons at first. He preferred a personal conversation with people.
Condemnation of Mohammed by the people
A special way to perform a Muslim prayer was opened to him, and Mohammed immediately began pious exercises. He did them daily. This caused a whole wave of complaints from those who saw him. Mohammed, having received the highest order to commit a public sermon, was cursed and ridiculed by the people, who mocked enough of his actions and statements. Many Quraysh, meanwhile, were seriously alarmed when they realized that the perseverance with which Muhammad claimed belief in one God could undermine the prestige of polytheism, and also lead to the decline of idolatry when people would turn to the religion of Muhammad. Some relatives of the prophet became his main opponents. They ridiculed and humiliated Muhammad, and also did evil against converts. There are many examples of abuse and bullying of people who have adopted a new faith.
Relocation of the first Muslims to Abyssinia
A brief biography of the Prophet Muhammad continued by moving to Abyssinia. In search of refuge, two large groups of the first Muslims moved here. Here they agreed to patronize the Christian Negus (king), who was very impressed with their way of life and teaching. Quraysh imposed a ban on all personal, military, business, trade relations with the clan Hashim. It was strictly forbidden to appear in Mecca to representatives of this clan. Very difficult times have come, many Muslims were doomed to the most severe poverty.
Death of Khadija and Abu Talib, New Marriage
The biography of the Prophet Muhammad was also noted at this time by other unfortunate events. Khadija, his wife, died in 619. She was his most loyal assistant and supporter. Abu Talib, uncle of Mohammed, died in the same year. Namely, he defended him from the violent attacks of fellow tribesmen. The Prophet, stricken with grief, left Mecca. He decided to go to Taif and find refuge here, but was rejected. Muhammad's friends married his pious widow Saud, who turned out to be a worthy woman and, moreover, a Muslim. Aisha, the young daughter of Abu Bakr, his friend, knew and loved the prophet all her life.And although she was still very young for marriage bonds, according to the customs of the day she nevertheless entered the family of Muhammad.
The essence of Muslim polygamy
The wives of the Prophet Mohammed are a separate topic. Some people are confused by this part of his biography. One should dispel the misconception that exists among people who do not understand the causes of polygamy in the Muslim world. At that time, a few Muslim women who were taking themselves as wives at once out of a sense of compassion, giving them shelter and their protection. Men were also called upon to help the spouses of their friends who died in battle, to provide them with separate houses for them. They should have been treated like the next of kin (of course, in the case of mutual love, everything could be different).
The biography of the Prophet Mohammed was marked by another major event. The Prophet in 619 had to experience a second amazing night in his life. This is Laylat al-Miraj, Ascension Night. It is known that Mohammed was awakened, after which he was transferred to Jerusalem on a magical animal. On Mount Zion, over the location of an ancient Jewish temple, heaven opened. Thus the way was opened which led to the throne of the Lord.However, it was not allowed to enter into the beyond regions either to him or to the angel Jabrail who accompanied Mohammed. This is how the ascension of the prophet Muhammad occurred. That night, the rules of prayer opened to him, which became the focus of faith, as well as the unshakable foundation of the life of the entire Muslim world. Muhammad also met with other prophets, including Moses, Jesus, and Abraham. This wonderful event strengthened and comforted him greatly, adding confidence that Allah did not leave him and did not leave him alone with his sorrows.
Preparations for the move to Yasrib
The fate of Muhammad now changed drastically. In Mecca, he was still ridiculed and harassed, but his message was already heard by many people outside this city. Several elders of Yathrib were persuaded the prophet to leave Mecca and move to their city, where he would be received with honor as a judge and leader. In Yathrib, Jews and Arabs lived together, constantly fighting with each other. They hoped that Muhammad would bring them peace. The Prophet immediately advised many of his followers to go to this city, while he himself remained in Mecca in order not to arouse suspicion.Indeed, after Abu Talib died, Quraysh might well have attacked the prophet, even killed him, and Muhammad understood perfectly well that sooner or later this was to happen.
Mohammed arrives in Yasrib
Some dramatic events are accompanied by the life story of the Prophet Muhammad during his departure. Muhammad miraculously escaped captivity only thanks to the excellent knowledge of the local deserts. Quraysh had nearly captured it several times, but Muhammad still managed to reach the outskirts of Yathrib. He was eagerly awaited in this city. When Muhammad arrived, people rushed to him with offers to settle with them. Embarrassed by such hospitality, the prophet gave his camel the right to choose. The camel decided to stop at the place where the dates dried. The prophet was instantly given this place to build a house. The new name was given to the city - Madinat an-Nabi (in translation - "the city of the prophet"). He is known today in abbreviation as Medina.
Reign of Muhammad in Yathrib
Mohammed proceeded without delay to the preparation of the decree, according to which he was proclaimed in this city the supreme head of all clans and tribes that were at enmity between themselves.From now on, they had to obey the orders of the prophet. Muhammad established that all citizens are free to profess their religion. They must coexist peacefully without fear of the highest disfavor or persecution. Only one thing asked Mohammed - to unite, in order to repel any enemy who dares to attack Medina. The tribal laws of Jews and Arabs were replaced by the principle of "justice for all", that is, independent of religion, color and social status.
The life of the Prophet Muhammad in Yathrib
The Prophet, having become the ruler of Medina and having mastered great wealth and influence, never lived like a king. From simple clay houses, which were built for his wives, consisted of his dwelling. The life of the Prophet Muhammad was simple - he never even had his own room. The courtyard with a well was located not far from the houses - a place that now became the mosque in which Orthodox Muslims are still assembled. In constant prayer, as well as in the admonition of believers, almost the whole life of Muhammad passed. In addition to the five obligatory prayers that were performed at the mosque, he devoted much time to solitary prayer,sometimes pious pondering most of the night. His wives made night prayer with him, after which they retired to their chambers. And Mohammed continued to pray for many hours, towards the end of the night, briefly falling asleep, in order to wake up soon to the pre-dawn prayer.
The decision to return to Mecca
The Prophet, who dreamed of returning to Mecca, in March 628 decided to make his dream a reality. He gathered 1,400 of his followers and set off with them, completely unarmed, in robes consisting of only 2 white blankets. The followers of the prophet, despite this, were denied entry into the city. Even the fact that Islam was confessed by many citizens of Mecca did not help. The pilgrims, in order to avoid possible clashes, made their victims near Mecca, in an area called Hudaybiyya. In 629, Mohammed began his plans to seize Mecca peacefully. The truce concluded in Khudaybiya was short-lived. The Meccans again in November 629 attacked a tribe allied with Muslims.
Mohammed's entry into Mecca
At the head of 10 thousand people, the largest army of all who ever left Medina, the prophet moved to Mecca.She settled near the city, after which Mecca surrendered without a fight. The Prophet Mohammed entered in triumph, went immediately to the Ka'ba, and made a ritual circus around it 7 times. After this, the prophet entered the shrine and destroyed all the idols.
Hadjat al-Wid, the death of Mohammed
Only in the year 632, in March, the only full-fledged pilgrimage to the Kaaba, known as the Last Pilgrimage (Hajat al-Vida), was made by the prophet Muhammad (the photo of the Kaaba in its present form is presented below).
He was sent during this pilgrimage revelations about the rules of the Hajj. To this day, all Muslims follow them. When, in order to appear before Allah, the prophet reached Mount Arafat, he proclaimed his last sermon. Muhammad was already seriously ill at that time. As much as he continued to lead prayers in the mosque. There was no improvement in the disease, and the prophet finally came down. He was at that time 63 years old. This ends the life story of the Prophet Muhammad. His followers could hardly believe that he died as a simple man. The story of the prophet Muhammad teaches us spirituality, faith, devotion. It interests not only Muslims today, but also many representatives of other faiths from different parts of the world.