Abdominal hernia: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
A hernia can not suddenly appear. It is formed due to certain factors and time, nothing else. Almost all the causes of this disease are divided into predisposing to the emergence of protrusion and accomplishment.
The abdomen after the removal of a hernia can be sagging and cause discomfort. Often there are pain.
The first category includes such factors as the weakness of tendons and muscles obtained since birth, and also the acquired changes (due to surgical interventions, weight loss, etc.), which cause the formation of weak points of the corset of the body (near the femoral and inguinal canal, umbilical ring, etc.).
The second category includes factors that stimulate the growth of intra-abdominal pressure and the appearance of abdominal hernia in women and men in the weak point. These factors include heavy physical exertion, abdominal swelling, flatulence, urination problems, pregnancy, etc.
It is important to pay attention to the fact that for the occurrence of a hernia of the abdomen the above factors should act for a long time. There are also other factors that influence the appearance of this disease:
- Hereditary predisposition.
- Flabbiness of tissues due to age.
- Weight loss due to illness or hunger.
- Long lasting cough.
To recognize the formation of a disease, one should know its signs. The following symptoms are abdominal hernia:
- The main symptom is the existence of a bulge (in size it can be like a pea or a watermelon). Almost always bulging can be noticed.
- Sometimes there are pain, but very rarely. They appear in the presence of large formations, or when the latter have existed for a long time and there are complications.
- Pain arises around the protrusion, but can spread throughout the abdomen and even give back, sacrum and groin.
- In some hernias, there may be a burning sensation and chest pain.
- Occasionally, vomiting, nausea, and constipation occur.
- Education in the abdomen are different, but they have certain symptoms of their own.
The following symptoms are characteristic of such formations:
- In the presence of a femoral hernia, women or men have problems with urination, as well as painful sensations in the lower abdomen, if the person fully straightens.
- In the presence of diaphragmatic hernia, the following symptoms are distinguished: the appearance of heartburn, belching, difficulty in swallowing.
- Difficult breathing, coughing and hoarseness are also possible.
- The sudden appearance of sharp pain in the abdomen, lethargy, nausea, and continued vomiting.
These are quite dangerous symptoms, with the appearance of which you need to sound the alarm, because they say that the formation is undermined. If there are such signs, it is recommended that you seek medical help as soon as possible.
Acquired forms of organ emergence into the groin area are characterized by blurred symptoms and sluggish passage. The first symptoms of abdominal hernia in men may appear unexpectedly. While the hernia is small, it does not cause pain. If it has been around for quite a long time, then the patient complains of an uncomfortable condition. Pain arises with its growth. Then the patient says that he is worried about the constant pain in the lower abdomen and groin. Discomfort can be in the area of the sacrum, lower back.
At first, such a hernia in men and women looks like a small elongated protrusion located near the groin. This hernia makes itself felt during exercise and then disappears. But as soon as the painful sensations become permanent, the protrusion is visible in any state of the body. After some time, adhesions form and they cause pain. If the bladder, uterus or ovaries (in women) get into the bag, it can lead to impaired urination, pain during menstruation. In some cases, the inguinal ring can pinch a blood vessel, causing acute pain. The condition is dangerous in that necrosis can begin, and the infection will spread throughout the abdominal cavity.
Causes of umbilical hernia of the abdomen:
- Congenital expansion of the umbilical ring when the scar does not reach the end and there is a small hole. It may not show up in childhood, but over time, under certain conditions, a hernia can form.
- Pregnancy and birth of a child. During pregnancy, the stomach of women increases, the navel of this stretches. There are constipation, which leads to an increase in pressure inside the abdomen.Very high risk for women who give birth repeatedly and during pregnancy did not follow the advice of the doctor. Also to the appearance of a hernia lead to difficult childbirth, a large child, multiple pregnancies.
- Inactive life. If a person does not engage in physical culture, his press is much weaker.
- Big loads. At the time of lifting the pressure inside the abdomen becomes higher.
- Diseases accompanied by high intra-abdominal pressure. These can be abnormalities in the digestive system, frequent constipation, persistent coughing and so on.
- Excess weight. Subcutaneous fat is an additional volume that leads to an umbilical hernia.
- Transferred operation. A hernia near the navel may also appear after surgery.
By femoral hernia, it is customary to imply a pathology in which the organs of the abdominal cavity (as a rule, the intestines and omentum) move beyond the permissible limits.
About the presence of femoral hernia say:
- The appearance of a dense tumor of small size between the groin and the thigh, "hiding" if the patient lays down.
- Pain in the thigh when walking, any kind of physical exertion.
Diagnosis of the disease involved the surgeon.Most often, the doctor applies the following methods:
- Irrigoscopy - X-ray analysis of the colon. The patient is administered barium sulfate. After the substance is evenly distributed throughout the body, the doctor assesses the state of the intestines. In the last stage, the intestine is filled with air in order to examine it for the presence of various kinds of polyps, ulcers, and the like.
- Herniography - the introduction of a special composition in the abdominal cavity. The patient is injected with a substance, previously anesthetized. After that, take a picture. The whole process takes no more than sixty minutes.
At first, the patient is only worried about tingling in the area of the hernia during exercise. It would not be superfluous to clarify that at first the sensations are almost imperceptible, however, as they develop, they become stronger and stronger. Further, a rather dense tumor is formed, which increases in diameter under load and disappears in the absence of it. Bulging increases significantly in size and ceases to disappear.
Hernia of the white line
A white hernia of the abdomen in children and adults is considered to be a tendinous structure, which is located from the chest to the pubis, clearly located in the middle. Here tendons are combined, located on both sides of the oblique muscle of the abdomen.
Abdominal line hernia - protrusion of a small portion of the abdominal organ under the skin (near the white line). At the initial stage, the pathology is painless and does not greatly disturb the patient. But over time, the disease develops and infringement can occur - the organs of the bag are compressed by an incompressible tendon ring, where they exit. It is dangerous for humans and requires urgent surgical intervention. Indeed, this is the only way to cure pathology. Without surgery, the patient can only slightly reduce the protrusion. But this will not cure, but only reduce the tone of the tendon and allow the hole to stretch even more. The operation of the hernia of the white line of the abdomen is quite simple, and it always goes well. There are three types of hernia:
- supra-umbilical hernia;
- near the navel;
- below the navel.
The latter is usually rare. Pain in trauma of the lateral and medial meniscus are different. If the cartilage is injured, an acute pain occurs.
In order to accurately establish the diagnosis, it is necessary to check with a gastroenterologist specializing in this area. Sometimes the doctor costs only by visual inspection, however, there are cases in which a simple examination is not enough.In such moments, you have to resort to one of the following methods for diagnosing a hernia of the abdomen:
- Ultrasound. This method is familiar to everyone, but to recall its principle will not be superfluous. Gel is applied to the study area. With the help of the device, the doctor conducts a scan of the internal organs that are displayed on the monitor.
- Survey radiography of the abdominal cavity. It can be carried out in a prone position and standing. For problems with the intestines and stomach, the second option is preferable. Before the procedure, you must remove all the jewelry.
- Radiography of the passage of barium. The patient drinks a barium drink. Forty-five minutes later the patient is placed on the table, the apparatus is induced on him. Having given the command "do not breathe," the doctor takes a photo.
There are several types of operations to remove a hernia of the abdomen:
- Standard - hernioplasty, done with complications or scheduled according to plan.
- An operation that is performed with the help of our own tissue or with the use of synthetic implants in order to close the defect. It is done laparoscopically, according to the method of Liechtenstein or through hernioplasty.
- Obstructive type of surgery is used to eliminate the umbilical defects.
Previously, the removal of a hernia was limited by the need to close the defect with a nearby tissue, which is practiced now, but less active. Operational intervention is done through an incision of ten to twelve centimeters, the hernial sac is separated and removed, and the organ is returned to its original place.
After removal, the plastic is made with a tissue, by flashing the muscles into the inguinal ligament.
The operation of the hernia of the white line of the abdomen with the help of tension plastic has a number of minuses and much less advantages:
- Long-term recovery after surgery, you will need to eliminate physical education classes, change the diet for at least six months.
- The bulging of the place where the hernia was after surgery on the abdomen may come back.
- Painful sensations, a scar may heal poorly, and inflammation may appear.
- A hernia may form after surgery in the place where the scar was.
Traditional medicine offers many options for the treatment of abdominal hernia. The most common ones are:
- In the early stages of a hernia, it is recommended to drink a mummy (0.2 g) dissolved in a glass of water every morning.The treatment lasts at least two weeks.
- Gooseberry decoction has a beneficial effect in combating the problem. The leaves should be crushed, two tablespoons of the resulting mass pour boiling water, it will take about two glasses of water. After a couple of hours, when the medicine is sufficiently infused and ready, use 1/3 cup up to five times a day.
- Broth clover will be useful for strengthening the weak walls of the abdomen and muscle tissue. It will take a teaspoon of the plant in a glass of boiling water. It is applied on 1/3 glasses, to food.
- Brine from sauerkraut will help in the treatment. Cabbage sheets or compress with brine should be applied to the place of hernia formation. Perform the procedure you need to constantly.
- A solution of vinegar 4% for daily rubbing the site of a hernia. To prepare just one tablespoon of vinegar, diluted in a glass of cold water. After wiping is performed, it is recommended to apply a compress with infusion of oak bark.
- The use of tincture prepared from the root of the plakun-herb (wolfberry silt) will have a positive effect. Two teaspoons of the plant pour a glass of boiling water, should insist in a thermos.After two hours, the product is ready for use. It is enough to drink 1/3 cup three times a day.
Prevention of abdominal hernia consists of several points.
1. Compliance with certain rules of nutrition:
- split meals;
- complete elimination of smoked meats and sausages from the diet;
- overeating is not allowed;
- it is recommended to limit sugar intake;
- a diet enriched with vegetables and fish.
The state of the body depends on the food consumed, so it is extremely important to stick to a diet.
2. Reception of necessary vitamins. In order to prevent hernia, it is also recommended to take vitamin complexes that allow you to maintain a healthy state of the body, strengthen it and restore it. Taking the following vitamins will reduce the risk of abdominal hernia:
- magnesium (buckwheat, nuts and cheeses);
- vitamin C (citrus, kiwi, greens);
- vitamin B (eggs, peas, beans);
- vitamin A (carrots, fish, cantaloupe, peaches).
3. Exercise. Regular performance of certain physical exercises will prevent the exhaustion of the abdominal walls, which, in turn, will reduce the likelihood of a hernia:
- pull-ups from a supine position, bending the knees;
- twisting the press, it is also necessary to take a prone position, having touched the knees with elbows, to return to the starting position;
- alternate straightening of the legs from a prone position, previously legs are bent at the knees.
To prevent abdominal hernia surgery, you must comply with the above measures and constantly monitor the state of health.